Sunday, June 2, 2013

Madeline Cheek (Hunter) 1916 - 1994

Madeline Hunter in front of UES, probably in the late 1970s
Madeline Cheek Hunter (1916–1994) was an American educator who developed a model for teaching and learning that was widely adopted by schools during the last quarter of the 20th century.
She was named one of the hundred most influential women of the 20th century and one of the ten most influential in education by the Sierra Research Institute and the National Women's Hall of Fame.

I taught with Madeline Hunter from 1974 to about 1982.  Madeline was a teachers teacher.  She knew how learning took place and was able to clearly train others in those methods.  I learned how to think and act like a teacher from Madeline.  She could think on her feet and believed that everyone including children, adults and teachers could learn?  She was an amazing person and I considered it a priviledge to work under her.  Kent Gardiner
 
Madeline Hunter from her Facebook page.











UCLA 1935














UCLA, 1934
 
UCLA, 1936
Madeline said she like to serve popcorn at the yearly FSA picnic so she could greet everyone and not get stuck with one person.

Madeline presenting an Ode to a departing staff member.  The Ode was written by Janet Harkness, left.

Madeline at a FSA picnic


Ann de la Sota
Anger Over Tuition
Childhood Expressions by Corinne A. Seeds
Corinne A. Seeds
Corinne A. Seeds University Elementary School
Cynthiana Brown 
Craig Cunningham
Janet Harkness
Lab School Videos 
Madeline Hunter
Moving UES 
UES 
UES Timeline
UES Videos  
University Elementary School Buildings 

125 Year Celebration 
1933 UES Newspaper
1970 Year Plan 
1972 Year Plan 

Encyclopedia:

Madeline Cheek Hunter

Influential American educator Madeline Cheek Hunter (1916-1994) developed a model for teaching and learning that was widely adopted by schools during the last quarter of the 20th century.
Madeline Hunter was one of two daughters born to Alexander Cheek, grandson of a Cherokee Indian. He had been orphaned at eight years old and had to drop out of school to work. Eventually he became a barber and, as a result of hard effort and intelligence, owned shops all over the United States and Canada. Her mother, Anna Keis, was the daughter of a Bohemian nobleman and a peasant woman.
Madeline's family originally lived in Canada where she was born. Her father was an avid hunter who liked Canada because "the duck hunting was better there." As Madeline was a "sickly" child, the family ultimately moved to California to avoid the terrible Canadian winters in Saskatchewan. Although they returned to Canada from May to October for many years, most of her schooling was in California. She and her father became naturalized United States citizens when she was about 14 years old. There was never a question that she and her sister would receive an education, a privilege denied her parents.
In junior high school she was placed in an experimental school to test some of Stanford University professor Louis Terman's psychological theories on intelligence. The school used her to score intelligence tests. Hunter later reported that, "As a result of that 'chore' and the stimulation from an outstanding school psychologist and teacher, Christine Cook, I became interested in human intelligence. That and classical ballet were my passions in life." As a 16-year-old (1932) she entered the University of California at Los Angeles as a combination pre-medicine and psychology major while continuing her ballet dancing. Eventually she had to choose between going to South America on tour with the Ballet Russe or finishing her degree. After choosing the latter, she discovered that limited eye-hand coordination would deny her the chance of a career as a neurological surgeon.
Two additional events influenced her choice of a career in school psychology. The first occurred many years before when waiting to be assigned to her seventh grade classroom in junior high school. Unknowingly, she would be assigned to an experimental class. While sitting in an auditorium, she watched as nearly every other student's name was called first and left for an assigned classroom. The feelings of hurt associated with a child being labeled last or dumb was not forgotten in her later works. As a consequence, a theme that runs consistently throughout her career is the need to give positive reinforcement to students in schools—"Never put a kid down, always build the kid up." A second defining moment that shaped her thinking occurred after graduation during her first work experiences at Children's Hospital in Los Angeles and at Juvenile Hall. From these situations she soon concluded that interventions in helping children in such situations were "too little, too late." She knew she needed to turn to children in schools and work there on the preventative side rather than the remedial side.
During World War II she married an engineer, Robert Hunter, who continued to work at Lockheed Aviation until his retirement. In 1944 they had a daughter, Cheryl, whose later career was that of a film editor, and in 1946 they had a son, Robin, who later became a school principal. When the children no longer needed a mother at home, Madeline went back to work full time in education, holding a series of positions in Los Angeles, namely, school psychologist, then principal, followed by director of research, and finally as an assistant superintendent who was used for "trouble shooting" difficult situations in the inner city, often involving multicultural groups. After 1963 she was associated with the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), first at the University Elementary School and later as a professor in the College of Education. During those years she worked closely with her colleague John Goodlad and was given the opportunity to implement her educational model in that laboratory school setting. She was named one of the hundred most influential women of the 20th century and one of the ten most influential in education by the Sierra Research Institute and the National Women's Hall of Fame.
Dissatisfaction with the quality of instruction in American schools during the 1970s and 1980s led many educators to call for fundamental changes. Madeline Hunter's model was turned to by many as a solution, and eventually it was implemented in 16 states formally in the 1980s and was widely used in others. Her education model is a "teacher decision-making model that is applicable to any mode or style of teaching, to any learner, and for any objective." Her method enables teachers to understand how particular behaviors can be attained by a student and how those desirable behaviors can be transferred and repeated in new situations.
A brief list of instructional and curricular decisions an English teacher might make in preparing for class are: (1) What can the students do as a result of this class? (2) What skills or information will the students need for attaining what they need to learn? (3) What learning behaviors can the teacher facilitate in the students which will result in the highest probability of being satisfying and successful? and (4) How will the teacher artistically use research and intuition to make students' satisfying achievement more probable?
By using her pre-medical background and her work in psychology, Hunter skillfully translated research from academic disciplines into teacher language and educational practice. She argued that teaching is like ballet or surgery; that is, teachers have to automate many behaviors so they can perform them artistically at high speed when a situation requiring them arises. As a consequence of applying her model, students learn behaviors that they can creatively transfer into new situations.
In response to a question asking her to assess the current educational situation in the 1990s, she said, "I believe the future of education is bright! We are beginning to unlock the mystery of the human brain and how it processes and learns. We, now, can enable teachers to use that knowledge to accelerate that learning process. No longer is teaching a 'laying on of hands.' It has become a profession that combines science with art to create a better and a more productive world for humankind." She died in 1994.

Further Reading

A brief biography and discussion of ideas can be found in two journals: Newsmakers 91, "Madeline Hunter," by David Collins; and Educational Leadership, "Portrait of Madeline Hunter," by Mark F. Goldberg (February 1990). Two journal articles that discuss and apply her education model are: Educational Leadership, "On Teaching and Supervising: A Conversation with Madeline Hunter," by Ron Brandt (February 1985); and English Journal, "Madeline Hunter in the English Classroom," by Madeline Hunter (September 1989). Selected books by her that introduce and apply her education model are published by TIP Publications, P.O. Box 514, El Segundo, California. They are: Motivation (1967); Reinforcement (1967); Retention (1967); Teach More—Faster (1969); Improve Instruction (1976); Mastery Teaching (1982); and, with Doug Russell, Mastering Coaching & Supervision (1989). □
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Hunter's family originally lived in Canada where she was born. Her father was an avid hunter who liked Canada because "the duck hunting was better there." As Hunter was a "sickly" child, the family ultimately moved to California to avoid the terrible Canadian winters in Saskatchewan. Although they returned to Canada from May to October for many years, most of her schooling was in California.

In junior high she was placed in an experimental school to test some of Stanford University's psychological theories on intelligence. They used her to score intelligence tests. As a result, she became interested in human intelligence; this along with classical ballet became her passions in life. As a 16-year-old she entered the University of California at Los Angeles as a combination pre-medicine and psychology major while continuing her ballet dancing. She had to choose either going to South America on tour with the Ballet Russe or finishing her degree in pre-medicine. She chose to finish her degree and then realized that she had limited hand eye coordination which would deny her the chance of becoming a neurological surgeon. Two additional events influenced her choice of a career in school psychology. The first occurred in seventh grade while sitting in an auditorium waiting to be assigned a class. She felt hurt when she was being labeled as dumb, these feelings were never forgotten. Because of this experience she felt the need for giving positive reinforcement to students in schools--"Never put a kid down, always build the kid up." A second influence occurred during her first work experiences at Children's Hospital in Los Angeles and at Juvenile Hall.

Life 

During World War II she married an engineer, Robert Hunter, who worked at Lockheed Aviation until he retired. They had two children, a daughter and a son. In 1944 their first child was born, Cheryl, who became a film editor later in her career. In 1946 they had their second child, Robin, who became a school principal.
After her children were on their own, she went back to working full time as an educator. She held many positions such as: a school psychologist, principal, director of research, and an assistant superintendent. She was given the opportunity to implement her educational model in a laboratory school setting. In Hunter's lifetime, she wrote 12 books, over 300 articles, and produced 17 videotape collections.
According to the Graduate School of Education at U.C.L.A where she worked, Hunter died at the age of 78 in Los Angeles from a series of strokes.

She believed that the foremost job of teachers was decision making, and that each teacher makes thousands of decisions each day. All of the decisions a teacher makes can be put into one of three categories: (1) content category - what you are going to teach; (2) teaching behavior category - what you as the teacher will do to facilitate and escalate that learning; and (3) learning behavior category - how the students are going to learn and how they will let you know that they've learned it.

Educational Beliefs 


In response to a question asking her to assess the current educational situation in the 1990s, she said, "I believe the future of education is bright! We are beginning to unlock the mystery of the human brain and how it processes and learns. We, now, can enable teachers to use that knowledge to accelerate that learning process. No longer is teaching a 'laying on of hands.' It has become a profession that combines science with art to create a better and a more productive world for humankind." (Source?)

Madeline Hunter developed the Instructional Theory into Practice teaching model. It is a direct instruction program that was implemented in thousands of schools throughout the United States.

Theories on Education 


Hunter identified seven components for teaching:

  1. knowledge of human growth and development
  2. content
  3. classroom management
  4. materials
  5. planning
  6. human relations
  7. instructional skills

Hunter also developed a direct instructional model and elements of effective instruction.

The instructional model has seven components:

  1. objectives
  2. standards
  3. anticipatory set
  4. teaching (input, modeling, checking for understanding)
  5. guided practice/monitoring
  6. closure
  7. independent practice

The elements of effective instruction are very similar to those of the instructional model, featuring seven components of teaching and behavioral objectives:

  1. objectives
  2. set(hook)
  3. standards/expectations
  4. teaching (input, modeling/demo, direction giving, and checking for understanding)
  5. guided practice
  6. closure
  7. independent practice

Hunter was the creator of Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP). ITIP is a teaching model on inservice/staff development program widely used during the 1970s and 1980s.

Madeline Cheek Hunter. (n.d.). Biographies. Retrieved November 5, 2008, from Answers.com Web site:

1930 census Madeline Hunter:


1940 Madeline Cheek goes to Hawaii




1964 LA Times:



1968 Madeline Cheek Hunter offers recipe:



1970 Principal Madeline Hunter



1970 Madeline Hunter







 1977 Madeline Hunter



 1978



1987 Madeline Hunter, Times




1994 Madeline Hunter obituary:



1994 Death date from Ancestry:





Photos of Madeline Hunter at the University Elementary School:













1978






1986
"Practically everyone knows there's plenty wrong with our schools," Madeline Hunter says. "The good news is that education is undergoing steady improvement precisely because we're intensely analytical and critical of it."

(Copyright, The Times Mirror Company; Los Angeles Times 1986all Rights reserved

Dr. Hunter had a series of strokes, said the Graduate School of Education at the University of California at Los Angeles, where she was an adjunct professor.  Dr. Hunter was nationally known for her work at the Corinne A. Seeds University Elementary School, the laboratory school of U.C.L.A.'s Graduate School of Education. She served as its principal from 1963 until 1982, when she became a full-time professor in administration and teacher education at the graduate school.

She used her background in psychology to tailor different approaches for helping pupils learn. Her technique identified the most effective methods for teachers in helping pupils overcome any barriers to learning. Her research challenged the view that failure to learn stems from environmental factors like poverty, broken homes or a low I.Q. She believed that proper teaching methods could overcome any disadvantage.

Madeline Cheek Hunter

Influential American educator Madeline Cheek Hunter (1916-1994) developed a model for teaching and learning that was widely adopted by schools during the last quarter of the 20th century.Madeline Hunter was one of two daughters born to Alexander Cheek, grandson of a Cherokee Indian. He had been orphaned at eight years old and had to drop out of school to work. Eventually he became a barber and, as a result of hard effort and intelligence, owned shops all over the United States and Canada. Her mother, Anna Keis, was the daughter of a Bohemian nobleman and a peasant woman.
Madeline's family originally lived in Canada where she was born. Her father was an avid hunter who liked Canada because "the duck hunting was better there." As Madeline was a "sickly" child, the family ultimately moved to California to avoid the terrible Canadian winters in Saskatchewan. Although they returned to Canada from May to October for many years, most of her schooling was in California. She and her father became naturalized United States citizens when she was about 14 years old. There was never a question that she and her sister would receive an education, a privilege denied her parents.

In junior high school she was placed in an experimental school to test some of Stanford University professor Louis Terman's psychological theories on intelligence. The school used her to score intelligence tests. Hunter later reported that, "As a result of that 'chore' and the stimulation from an outstanding schoolpsychologist and teacher, Christine Cook, I became interested in human intelligence. That and classical ballet were my passions in life." As a 16-year-old (1932) she entered the University of California at Los Angeles as a combination pre-medicine and psychology major while continuing her ballet dancing. Eventually she had to choose between going to South America on tour with the Ballet Russe or finishing her degree. After choosing the latter, she discovered that limited eye-hand coordination would deny her the chance of a career as a neurological surgeon.
Two additional events influenced her choice of a career in school psychology. The first occurred many years before when waiting to be assigned to her seventh grade classroom in junior high school. Unknowingly, she would be assigned to an experimental class. While sitting in an auditorium, she watched as nearly every other student's name was called first and left for an assigned classroom. The feelings of hurt associated with a child being labeled last or dumb was not forgotten in her later works. As a consequence, a theme that runs consistently throughout her career is the need to give positive reinforcement to students in schools - "Never put a kid down, always build the kid up." A second defining moment that shaped her thinking occurred after graduation during her first work experiences at Children's Hospital in Los Angeles and at Juvenile Hall. From these situations she soon concluded that interventions in helping children in such situations were "too little, too late." She knew she needed to turn to children in schools and work there on the preventative side rather than the remedial side.
During World War II she married an engineer, Robert Hunter, who continued to work at Lockheed Aviation until his retirement. In 1944 they had a daughter, Cheryl, whose later career was that of a film editor, and in 1946 they had a son, Robin, who later became a school principal. When the children no longer needed a mother at home, Madeline went back to work full time in education, holding a series of positions in Los Angeles, namely, school psychologist, then principal, followed by director of research, and finally as an assistant superintendent who was used for "trouble shooting" difficult situations in the inner city, often involving multicultural groups. After 1963 she was associated with the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), first at the University Elementary School and later as a professor in the College of Education. During those years she worked closely with her colleague John Goodlad and was given the opportunity to implement her educational model in that laboratory school setting. She was named one of the hundred most influential women of the 20th century and one of the ten most influential in education by the Sierra Research Institute and the National Women's Hall of Fame.
Dissatisfaction with the quality of instruction in American schools during the 1970s and 1980s led many educators to call for fundamental changes. Madeline Hunter's model was turned to by many as a solution, and eventually it was implemented in 16 states formally in the 1980s and was widely used in others. Her education model is a "teacher decision-making model that is applicable to any mode or style of teaching, to any learner, and for any objective." Her method enables teachers to understand how particular behaviors can be attained by a student and how those desirable behaviors can be transferred and repeated in new situations.
A brief list of instructional and curricular decisions an English teacher might make in preparing for class are: (1) What can the students do as a result of this class? (2) What skills or information will the students need for attaining what they need to learn? (3) What learning behaviors can the teacher facilitate in the students which will result in the highest probability of being satisfying and successful? and (4) How will the teacher artistically use research and intuition to make students' satisfying achievement more probable?
By using her pre-medical background and her work in psychology, Hunter skillfully translated research from academic disciplines into teacher language and educational practice. She argued that teaching is like ballet or surgery; that is, teachers have to automate many behaviors so they can perform them artistically at high speed when a situation requiring them arises. As a consequence of applying her model, students learn behaviors that they can creatively transfer into new situations.

In response to a question asking her to assess the current educational situation in the 1990s, she said, "I believe the future of education is bright! We are beginning to unlock the mystery of the human brain and how it processes and learns. We, now, can enable teachers to use that knowledge to accelerate that learning process. No longer is teaching a 'laying on of hands.' It has become a profession that combines science with art to create a better and a 
more productive world for humankind." She died in 1994.


Obit: 


Madeline C. Hunter, the maverick educator and psychologist who was recognized worldwide for her research demonstrating that teachers-not heredity and environment-were the primary influences on learning skills, is dead.
The UCLA professor-whose workshops attracted thousands of educators over the years-was 78. She died Thursday at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
A UCLA spokeswoman said she had recently suffered several strokes.
Known as the founder of what is called the "clinical teaching method," Mrs. Hunter held four degrees in education and psychology, her last a doctorate in education from UCLA in 1966.
Her career beginnings were ordinary but in distinctly disparate locations: Clinical psychologist at Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles and Los Angeles Juvenile Hall, school psychologist and then principal at public schools ranging from Watts to Bel-Air.
She had been affiliated with John Goodlad, scholar and onetime director of UCLA's University Elementary School. He named her principal of the school in 1963, a post she held for nearly 20 years.
It was there she became aware of research that challenged longstanding beliefs that poor learners came from poor and broken homes, that low incomes produced low IQs. Instead, she discovered that teaching methods alone can make the difference.
"We have yet to find a student who won't learn (when taught properly)," she said in a Los Angeles Times interview in 1986.
She also made partners of her student's parents and urged them to encourage the self-respect she was trying to instill in the children.
Despite her burgeoning reputation and the consequent demands on her schedule, she made time each day to spend with her students at the experimental university school.
UCLA Chancellor Charles E. Young, whose two children attended University Elementary School while Mrs. Hunter was there, said upon learning of her death that "the worldwide community of educators has lost a true pioneer who changed the face of elementary education for all time."
What she studied and then taught for three decades brought throngs of frustrated teachers to her seminars-teachers battling declining test scores, teachers fighting rising dropout rates, teachers in conflict with parents who either did not understand or did not trust those they had charged with their children's education.
"I used to think teachers were born, not made," Mrs. Hunter said in 1990. "But I know better now. I've seen bumblers turned into geniuses while charismatic characters turned out happy illiterates."
Her tools involved a language all her own: modeling was demonstration; dip-sticking meant that the teacher was checking for understanding, and anticipatory set meant review.
"Disciplining with dignity" involved an approach she called "skillful manipulation."
And she also invented characters.
Poverty Johnny had a mother who constantly told him to shut up. Affluent Johnny had a mother with the same message, but who couched it in more genteel terms.
Mrs. Hunter not only became popular, she became wealthy. She spoke thousands of times for fees as high as $5,000 a day and she published videos and books. Most California districts exposed at least some of their teachers to her training.
But not all liked what they heard, particularly her ideas that the instructor should prompt new concepts from youngsters. Or that homework should involve review or "something a student pretty much knows . . . not original learning because the beginning is like wet cement: A mistake is very hard to correct."
"A lot of homework is just drivel. Teachers grade homework when they haven't the foggiest idea of who did it, or how much help the student was given. . . . The real question is whether the student learned what the homework was designed to accomplish."
Survivors include her husband, Robert Hunter, a daughter, a son, two grandchildren and a sister.
Donations in her name are requested for the Madeline Hunter Fund, a scholarship endowment in the UCLA Graduate School of Education.
Illustration
PHOTO: Madeline Hunter in 1986 / Los Angeles Times


Madeline Cheek Hunter, professor of educational administration and teacher education, was the creator of the Instructional Theory Into Practice (ITIP) teaching model, an inservice/staff development program widely used during the 1970s and 1980s.
Hunter entered the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), at the age of sixteen and, over the course of her career, earned four degrees in psychology and education. In the early 1960s Hunter became principal of the University Elementary School, the laboratory school at UCLA, where she worked under John Goodlad. She left the school in 1982 amidst controversy over her methods, but continued at UCLA as a professor in administration and teacher education. She also continued to lecture and write, and by the time of her death at the age of seventy-eight, Hunter had written twelve books and over three hundred articles, and produced seventeen videotape collections.

Hunter's influence on American education came at a time when public schools were criticized widely for falling test scores, increasing dropout rates, and discipline problems. Hunter claimed that her teaching methods would transform classrooms into learning environments, allow the dissemination of more knowledge at a faster rate, and use positive reinforcement and discipline with dignity to greatly reduce disruptive behavior. Her seven-step model and related educational theories, outlined in her extensive writings, lectures, and videotape series, gave teachers strategies for controlling their classrooms and planning their lessons. Administrators used the model as a way to assess the effectiveness of their teachers.

Hunter defined teaching as a series of decisions that take place in three realms: content, learning behaviors of students, and teacher behaviors. Content refers to the specific information, skill, or process that is appropriate for students at a particular time. Content decisions are based upon students' prior knowledge and how it relates to future instruction; simple understandings must precede more complex understandings. Decisions regarding learning behaviors indicate how a student will learn and show evidence of that learning. Because there is no best way for all students to learn, a variety of learning behaviors is usually more effective than one. Evidence of learning must be perceivable by the teacher to ensure that learning has occurred. The third area of decision-making, teacher behavior, refers to the use of principles of learning–validated by research–that enhance student achievement.

Article:


Madeline Cheek Hunter, professor of educational administration and teacher education, was the creator of the Instructional Theory Into Practice (ITIP) teaching model, an inservice/staff development program widely used during the 1970s and 1980s.
Hunter entered the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), at the age of sixteen and, over the course of her career, earned four degrees in psychology and education. In the early 1960s Hunter became principal of the University Elementary School, the laboratory school at UCLA, where she worked under John Goodlad. She left the school in 1982 amidst controversy over her methods, but continued at UCLA as a professor in administration and teacher education. She also continued to lecture and write, and by the time of her death at the age of seventy-eight, Hunter had written twelve books and over three hundred articles, and produced seventeen videotape collections.

Hunter's influence on American education came at a time when public schools were criticized widely for falling test scores, increasing dropout rates, and discipline problems. Hunter claimed that her teaching methods would transform classrooms into learning environments, allow the dissemination of more knowledge at a faster rate, and use positive reinforcement and discipline with dignity to greatly reduce disruptive behavior. Her seven-step model and related educational theories, outlined in her extensive writings, lectures, and videotape series, gave teachers strategies for controlling their classrooms and planning their lessons. Administrators used the model as a way to assess the effectiveness of their teachers.

Hunter defined teaching as a series of decisions that take place in three realms: content, learning behaviors of students, and teacher behaviors. Content refers to the specific information, skill, or process that is appropriate for students at a particular time. Content decisions are based upon students' prior knowledge and how it relates to future instruction; simple understandings must precede more complex understandings. Decisions regarding learning behaviors indicate how a student will learn and show evidence of that learning. Because there is no best way for all students to learn, a variety of learning behaviors is usually more effective than one. Evidence of learning must be perceivable by the teacher to ensure that learning has occurred. The third area of decision-making, teacher behavior, refers to the use of principles of learning–validated by research–that enhance student achievement.

In order to successfully implement Hunter's methods, teachers undergo extensive professional development that conveys the types of decisions they must make. Training includes viewing videotapes that demonstrate effective decision-making in the classroom, and the Teaching Appraisal for Instructional Improvement Instrument (TAIII), administered by a trained observer or coach, which diagnoses and prescribes teacher behaviors to increase the likelihood of student learning.

Hunter's method of direct instruction, generally referred to as the Madeline Hunter Method, includes seven elements: objectives; standards; anticipatory set; teaching; guided practice; closure; and independent practice. Behavioral objectives are formulated before the lesson and clearly indicate what the student should be able to do when the lesson is accomplished. Standards of performance inform the student about the forthcoming instruction, what the student is expected to do, what procedures will be followed, and what knowledge or skills will be demonstrated. The anticipatory set is the hook that captures the student's attention. Teaching includes the acts of input, modeling, and checking for understanding. Input involves providing basic information in an organized way and in a variety of formats, including lecture, videos, or pictures. Modeling is used to exemplify critical attributes of the topic of study, and various techniques are used to determine if students understand the material before proceeding. The teacher then assists students through each step of the material with guided practice and gives appropriate feedback. Closure reviews and organizes the critical aspects of the lesson to help students incorporate information into their knowledge base. Independent practice, accomplished at various intervals, helps students retain information after initial instruction.

Although the Hunter Method was widely used during the last quarter of the twentieth century, it has not been without its critics. Based on behavioral psychological theory, some educators concluded that it is mechanistic and simplistic and is only useful–if at all–to teach the acquisition of information or basic skill mastery at the cost of stifling teacher and student creativity and independent thinking. Others deplore the use of the Hunter Method as a lockstep approach to instructional design. The Hunterization of teaching has even led some districts to require teachers to utilize the Hunter approach and base their teacher evaluation instruments on it. Hunter herself lamented this misuse of her methods and claimed that there was no such thing as a "Madeline Hunter-type" lesson. A significant body of criticism questions her claims that her method could enable students to learn more at a faster rate and improve student achievement. Several studies, most notably the Napa County, California, study, indicate little, if any, evidence to justify her claims.
Proponents point to Hunter's clear and systematic approach to mastery teaching. They argue that, rather than being prescriptive, Hunter provides a framework within which teachers can make decisions that are applicable to their own classrooms. Rather than being simplistic or superficial, Hunter's method is straightforward and uses a common language that classroom teachers can easily understand. Although Hunter's method may be easy to implement, it may also be complex in its application, depending upon the specific objectives of the teacher.

During the height of her popularity, Hunter's ITIP Model for mastery teaching was formally adopted in sixteen states and widely used by many others. Hunter is regarded by many as a "teacher's teacher" for her ability to translate educational and psychological theory into practical, easy-to-understand pedagogy, and her influence on classroom teaching techniques is still evident in the twenty-first century.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

GIBBONEY, RICHARD A. 1987. "A Critique of Madeline Hunter's Teaching Model from Dewey's Perspective." Educational Leadership 44 (5):46–50.
HUNTER, MADELINE. 1967. Teach More–Faster! El Segundo, CA: TIP Publications.
HUNTER, MADELINE. 1979. "Teaching Is Decision Making." Educational Leadership 37 (1):62–65.
HUNTER, MADELINE. 1982. Mastery Teaching. El Segundo, CA: TIP Publications.
ROBBINS, PAM, and WOLFE, PAT. 1987. "Reflections on a Hunter-Based Staff Development Project." Educational Leadership 44 (5):56–61.
SLAVIN, ROBERT E. 1987. "The Hunterization of America's Schools." Instructor 96 (8):56–60.
MARILYN HEATH

Read more: Madeline Cheek Hunter (1916–1994) - Teacher, Teaching, Student, and Students - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2074/Hunter-Madeline-Cheek-1916-1994.html#ixzz2Wo4HlEkw

Influential American educator Madeline Cheek Hunter (1916-1994) developed a model for teaching and learning that was widely adopted by schools during the last quarter of the 20th century.
Madeline Hunter was one of two daughters born to Alexander Cheek, grandson of a Cherokee Indian. He had been orphaned at eight years old and had to drop out of school to work. Eventually he became a barber and, as a result of hard effort and intelligence, owned shops all over the United States and Canada. Her mother, Anna Keis, was the daughter of a Bohemian nobleman and a peasant woman.
Madeline's family originally lived in Canada where she was born. Her father was an avid hunter who liked Canada because "the duck hunting was better there." As Madeline was a "sickly" child, the family ultimately moved to California to avoid the terrible Canadian winters in Saskatchewan. Although they returned to Canada from May to October for many years, most of her schooling was in California. She and her father became naturalized United States citizens when she was about 14 years old. There was never a question that she and her sister would receive an education, a privilege denied her parents.

In junior high school she was placed in an experimental school to test some of Stanford University professor Louis Terman's psychological theories on intelligence. The school used her to score intelligence tests. Hunter later reported that, "As a result of that 'chore' and the stimulation from an outstanding school psychologist and teacher, Christine Cook, I became interested in human intelligence. That and classical ballet were my passions in life." As a 16-year-old (1932) she entered the University of California at Los Angeles as a combination pre-medicine and psychology major while continuing her ballet dancing. Eventually she had to choose between going to South America on tour with the Ballet Russe or finishing her degree. After choosing the latter, she discovered that limited eye-hand coordination would deny her the chance of a career as a neurological surgeon.

Two additional events influenced her choice of a career in school psychology. The first occurred many years before when waiting to be assigned to her seventh grade classroom in junior high school. Unknowingly, she would be assigned to an experimental class. While sitting in an auditorium, she watched as nearly every other student's name was called first and left for an assigned classroom. The feelings of hurt associated with a child being labeled last or dumb was not forgotten in her later works. As a consequence, a theme that runs consistently throughout her career is the need to give positive reinforcement to students in schools - "Never put a kid down, always build the kid up." A second defining moment that shaped her thinking occurred after graduation during her first work experiences at Children's Hospital in Los Angeles and at Juvenile Hall. From these situations she soon concluded that interventions in helping children in such situations were "too little, too late." She knew she needed to turn to children in schools and work there on the preventative side rather than the remedial side.

During World War II she married an engineer, Robert Hunter, who continued to work at Lockheed Aviation until his retirement. In 1944 they had a daughter, Cheryl, whose later career was that of a film editor, and in 1946 they had a son, Robin, who later became a school principal. When the children no longer needed a mother at home, Madeline went back to work full time in education, holding a series of positions in Los Angeles, namely, school psychologist, then principal, followed by director of research, and finally as an assistant superintendent who was used for "trouble shooting" difficult situations in the inner city, often involving multicultural groups. After 1963 she was associated with the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), first at the University Elementary School and later as a professor in the College of Education. During those years she worked closely with her colleague John Goodlad and was given the opportunity to implement her educational model in that laboratory school setting. She was named one of the hundred most influential women of the 20th century and one of the ten most influential in education by the Sierra Research Institute and the National Women's Hall of Fame.

Dissatisfaction with the quality of instruction in American schools during the 1970s and 1980s led many educators to call for fundamental changes. Madeline Hunter's model was turned to by many as a solution, and eventually it was implemented in 16 states formally in the 1980s and was widely used in others. Her education model is a "teacher decision-making model that is applicable to any mode or style of teaching, to any learner, and for any objective." Her method enables teachers to understand how particular behaviors can be attained by a student and how those desirable behaviors can be transferred and repeated in new situations.

A brief list of instructional and curricular decisions an English teacher might make in preparing for class are: (1) What can the students do as a result of this class? (2) What skills or information will the students need for attaining what they need to learn? (3) What learning behaviors can the teacher facilitate in the students which will result in the highest probability of being satisfying and successful? and (4) How will the teacher artistically use research and intuition to make students' satisfying achievement more probable?

By using her pre-medical background and her work in psychology, Hunter skillfully translated research from academic disciplines into teacher language and educational practice. She argued that teaching is like ballet or surgery; that is, teachers have to automate many behaviors so they can perform them artistically at high speed when a situation requiring them arises. As a consequence of applying her model, students learn behaviors that they can creatively transfer into new situations.

In response to a question asking her to assess the current educational situation in the 1990s, she said, "I believe the future of education is bright! We are beginning to unlock the mystery of the human brain and how it processes and learns. We, now, can enable teachers to use that knowledge to accelerate that learning process. No longer is teaching a 'laying on of hands.' It has become a profession that combines science with art to create a better and a more productive world for humankind." She died in 1994.
Further Reading

A brief biography and discussion of ideas can be found in two journals: Newsmakers 91, "Madeline Hunter," by David Collins; and Educational Leadership, "Portrait of Madeline Hunter," by Mark F. Goldberg (February 1990). Two journal articles that discuss and apply her education model are: Educational Leadership, "On Teaching and Supervising: A Conversation with Madeline Hunter," by Ron Brandt (February 1985); and English Journal, "Madeline Hunter in the English Classroom," by Madeline Hunter (September 1989). Selected books by her that introduce and apply her education model are published by TIP Publications, P.O. Box 514, El Segundo, California. They are: Motivation (1967); Reinforcement (1967); Retention (1967); Teach More - Faster (1969); Improve Instruction (1976); Mastery Teaching (1982); and, with Doug Russell, Mastering Coaching & Supervision (1989).

Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/madeline-cheek-hunter#ixzz37KAMjpCh



Published Online: October 1, 1991

Madeline

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What do teachers and medicine men have in common? Madeline Hunter knows. A medicine man, according to Hunter, might concoct a brew for curing malaria by mixing a gnat's eyelash with water from a magic tree and performing certain carefully prescribed incantations. While the mixture might actually cure malaria, the medicine man wouldn't understand that it was the quinine from the tree that actually produced the healing. As Hunter sees it, many teachers-- like medicine men--flounder along on intuition, occasionally displaying flashes of quinine-like inspiration but lacking a sound scientific basis for their methods. "We've had wonderful teachers since the days of Christ and Plato, but they were intuitive teachers,'' she says. Coming from Hunter, intuition doesn't quite sound like an obscenity, but it does seem like something to avoid.

To some teachers, Hunter's insights make her an educational guru. Crusading against the intuitive, spontaneous, improvisational approach to teaching, Hunter has built a profitable enterprise by spreading her model of teaching as an "applied science.'' In Hunter's world, teachers aren't much different from surgeons: Education, like medicine, is based on proven research findings that link cause and effect.

"We are today where medicine was when [physicians] found that germs, not evil spirits, cause disease,'' Hunter tells a group of teachers and principals who have traveled from around the country to hear her message during a three-week summer workshop at the University of California at Los Angeles, her hometown. For $450 a week, Hunter will give them straightforward answers to many questions that have troubled teachers for decades. What's more, she assures the educators, these answers, when properly applied in the classroom, will help students learn more.

In her popular book Mastery Teaching, Hunter offers readers a guarantee of sorts: "From now on, you will know what you are doing when you teach, why you are doing what you do.''
With such a positive, uncomplicated message, it's not surprising that Hunter has amassed a large, loyal following among teachers and principals. The UCLA workshop participants offer rave reviews for the woman most simply call Madeline. "Madeline makes me feel good about being a teacher,'' says one. Adds another: "She's an amazing woman.''

Over the past two decades, Madeline Hunter has become a household word among educators. She's been called an institution, as well-known as Kleenex or Xerox. She's spoken to thousands of teachers in every state and in dozens of countries, and thousands more have been exposed to Hunter's ideas through a variety of forums. When school districts adopt a program of "effective instruction,'' it's probably an adaptation of her model.

But Hunter inspires as much criticism as praise. For a growing number of teachers, the idea of an externally imposed teaching model runs counter to their demands for professional autonomy. There seems to be an inherent contradiction between Hunter's model of effective teaching and education reformers' efforts to promote a more flexible, child-centered approach to learning. Teachers in many districts complain that some administrators have turned Hunter's teaching methodology into a rigid religion; non-believers in such schools often suffer the penalty of poor evaluations.

Other critics have condemned her work, calling it "pseudoscience'' and "mechanistic behaviorism''; one leading researcher says there's no solid evidence to back up Hunter's ambitious claims that her model is effective. And some fiscal-minded skeptics question the wisdom of spending millions of dollars to train teachers and administrators in Hunter-type programs when school budgets are already strained.

An aura of science and medicine pervades Hunter's UCLA workshop. The site--the health sciences building--is surrounded by the UCLA Medical Center, medical school, and dental school; clad in white lab coats, medical professionals with stethoscopes around their necks wander hallways lined with drawings and photos of human anatomy. Even the title of Hunter's workshop--"clinical supervision''--evokes a medical tone.

Hunter, still trim and energetic at 75, comes across as the archetypal teacher: authoritative, confident, witty, and eloquent. Her manner of speaking, with concise phrases and abundant hand gestures, is a bit reminiscent of George Bush's, except Hunter speaks in complete sentences. Her catchy slogans, on the other hand-- "more inspiration, less perspiration,'' "what is logical is not always psychological,'' and "thinking on your seat is easier than thinking on your feet''--bring to mind Jesse Jackson.

Hunter tells the audience she doesn't know the secret for producing virtuoso instructors, but she says her model can turn marginal teachers into effective ones. "Pedagogy is invariant just as nutrition theory is invariant,'' she says. "It looks very different, but a good music teacher is doing what a good calculus teacher is doing, just like it looks different if you're eating dried caribou or raw fish or peanut soup, but it's all protein.''

The foundation of Hunter's pedagogy--and the thing most closely identified with her--is her "elements of successful instruction.'' She talks and writes about other subjects, but when districts, schools, and ultimately, teachers, implement a Hunter-type model, it usually centers on her elements of instruction.
Briefly, the model consists of:
  • The anticipatory set--getting students focused on the subject, possibly by having them think about some relevant example from their own lives.
  • The lesson's objective--letting students know what they are learning and why.
  • Input--offering more information and stimulus to involve students in the lesson.
  • Modeling--demonstrating the subject matter, sometimes with actual models, other times with relevant examples.
  • Checking for understanding--having students make various hand signals or asking for individual or group responses.
  • Guided practice--roaming the room to help students and correct their mistakes.
  • Independent practice--giving students exercises to reinforce the lesson, after the teacher is confident they have a good grasp of the subject matter.
Those seven elements, combined with positive re- inforcement, Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of thinking, and other nuggets of educational psychology, form what Hunter calls her "decisionmaking model'' of teaching. "I don't tell teachers what to do,'' she says. "All I can tell teachers is what they better know and think about before they decide what to do.''

Although it looks a lot like the traditional lecturedominated style of teaching, Hunter maintains that her model of instruction applies equally well to any situation in which someone is trying to teach, whether it's a cooperative-learning classroom, computerassisted instruction, or a corporate training session. "I've simply taken the theory, much of which has been around for a hundred years, and translated it for classroom teachers,'' she says.

No one can accuse Hunter of not practicing what she preaches: Her lectures include all of her elements of successful instruction. She starts one segment by asking participants a question to get them thinking. Teachers and principals versed in Hunter lingo know she's given them an "anticipatory set.'' From there, Hunter states the thesis of the discussion; every minute or two, she illustrates her point with an example, sometimes from her beloved field of medicine, other times from her varied experiences in and out of schools. "Examples are the most powerful thing in education,'' she explains.

Hunter's examples also provide a glimpse into her background and the roots of her educational philosophy. She started her career more than four decades ago as a clinical psychologist with the Los Angeles Children's Hospital and later at juvenile hall. After finding those remedial ends of psychology unsatisfying, Hunter decided to try her hand at school psychology, which she thought offered better opportunities to prevent the problems she had seen in her earlier jobs. (Her initial impression of schools: "Every teacher had taken an educational psychology course, but none of it applied to teaching.'')

She has developed and refined her instructional model over the course of her long education-related career, which has included more than a dozen years as a psychologist and principal in Los Angeles-area public schools and 20 years as principal of University Elementary School, a lab school on the UCLA campus. Hunter left the lab school in 1982 but has stayed on at UCLA as an adjunct professor of education.

Of her many accomplishments, Hunter is perhaps proudest of the hand-signaling system she developed to help teachers, as she puts it, "check for understanding.'' A simple glance around the classroom lets a teacher employing this system know who has grasped the material and who has not. For example, a teacher might ask a series of true-or-false questions that each student must answer with a thumb up for true, a thumb down for false, or a thumb to the side if he or she is not sure. The teacher might also ask students to show with one or two fingers if sentence one or sentence two contains, say, a dependent clause. The possibilities are endless. It's all part of Hunter's admonition to "teach smarter not harder.'' If teachers practice "dip-sticking,'' she says, they won't have to wait until test time to see whether their students really understand the material.

Naturally, every Hunter presentation includes hand signals, the seminar at UCLA being no exception. As she displays sample work sheets on an overhead projector for almost an hour, she asks the audience to respond with signals: "Raise your hand if you think this work sheet is worth doing.''

Hunter acknowledges that some teachers and students think signaling is "baby stuff.'' But they become enthusiastic signalers, she adds, once they realize that the system offers everyone an unthreatening way to correct misconceptions.

On the surface, Hunter seems to offer teachers a helpful framework for instruction. For some of Hunter's critics, however, her model adds up to little more than an inventory of what most teachers already do. "A lot of [the model's] popularity is the fact that it's not very innovative,'' says Robert Slavin, an education researcher at Johns Hopkins University. "The reason it sounds sensible is because it's what teachers have been doing.'' Teachers who attend a Hunter presentation may leave feeling affirmed, he notes, but they return to their classrooms and practice business as usual because they think they're already teaching the right way.

"This is just a hunch,'' Slavin adds, "but I would guess that training in Madeline Hunter would make no difference for maybe 70 percent of teachers. Maybe 30 percent are struggling, and, for them, appropriate training and follow-up may be useful.''
A different criticism comes from Richard Gibboney, who challenges Hunter's central assertion that education is "just like'' medicine, nutrition, and other more traditional sciences. "She has the aura of science without the substance,'' argues Gibboney, a former commissioner of education in Vermont who is now an education professor at the University of Pennsylvania. "When science is applied to the human area, it comes out as pseudoscience. Teachers are told, 'research says,' and they're kind of browbeaten into believing it. They're going to think it's right; it's like arguing with the principles of physics.''

Moreover, Gibboney asserts, the psychology underlying Hunter's model is the behaviorism of B.F. Skinner and E.L. Thorndike, which, by its nature, is highly mechanistic. "It's really a technique to teach without the ideas, without worrying about what you teach or the context in which teaching is done,'' Gibboney says. "Her method lets a social studies teacher drone through a text and present inadequate, superficial information more effectively. It's perfect for facts, but it's ab- solutely ineffective for teaching ideas.''

Hunter disagrees and argues that her method, when used correctly, can help students understand both concrete facts and abstract concepts. It's up to teachers, she says, to take the lead in guiding students beyond the mere recitation of names and dates. Hunter offers a formula for teaching, but she cautions that teachers must apply her methods appropriately, according to the situation.

Whether a lesson involves ideas or facts, Hunter warns teachers against wandering too far from "safe'' subject matter; the emotions aroused by controversial issues, she says, can sidetrack students from the lesson's objective. And, unlike many teachers who want students to become more self-directed learners, Hunter is uneasy about allowing students too much freedom. "Students,'' she has written, "have an absolute gift for volunteering murky or confusing examples or those which present an exception to the rule.'' Hunter's message coincides with her suspicion of intuition and improvisation: Teachers should stick to their plan and maintain control of the discussion.

John Taylor Gatto, who gives his New York City students almost free reign to decide what they want to learn, considers Hunter's approach "massively illconceived.'' "You can create geniuses without all this phony theorizing,'' says Gatto, the 1991 New York State Teacher of the Year. "Formal teaching is a very small and inconsequential part of learning. In truth, people teach themselves.''

Probably the greatest concern from teachers about Hunter's model involves the rigid way it has been applied--and misapplied--in schools. It's a depressingly familiar story: Administrators seek set formulas that promise dramatic results. And Hunter's allusions to science and research can be seductive, especially with policymakers demanding greater "accountability'' from schools. Often as not, widespread implementation results in oversimplification of complex issues, inhibiting the flexibility crucial to effective practice. In short, many of the problems associated with Hunter's model are problems rooted in the educational system itself.

For example, Hunter says she developed her model not as a way to evaluate teachers but rather as a means for supervisors to coach teachers and "accelerate'' their teaching. But stories abound of teachers who received poor evaluations because they didn't "do Madeline Hunter'' properly in their classrooms.
Last January, Sylvia Amato retired from her job as a speech therapist in an urban New Jersey school district. But rather than leaving with fond memories from her 20year career, Amato left feeling bitter because of her experience with the Program for Effective Teaching and Supervision, the district's version of the Hunter-based model of instruction.
 
Amato, who worked with her students once a week, recalls rehearsing a fairy tale with one group for a performance before several other classes. Observing Amato and her students on rehearsal day, the department head strongly criticized the teacher for not employing all the PETS elements. "I certainly should not have been expected to do it then,'' Amato says. "The kids were all excited about the play, and I was written up for not doing PETS. I had always had wonderful evaluations, and then I started to get all sorts of lousy evaluations. Coming at the end of my career, it didn't make me feel good about all the energy and enthusiasm I had put into my teaching.''

In his book Tales Out of School, Patrick Welsh, a high school English teacher in Alexandria, Va., describes how he reacted when an associate principal began using Hunter's elements of instruction as a basis for teacher evaluations. "I'd been teaching for 18 years and received enough feedback from parents and students to know I must be doing something right,'' Welsh writes. "Why should I be forced to go through a set of prescribed, mechanistic procedures to satisfy the school system's need to document before the public its seriousness about improving teaching?'' Welsh is even more blunt when directly asked about Hunter's model. "It's stuff for incompetent teachers teaching dumbbells,'' he says. "It's the antithesis of what good teaching is. Any idiot can play the Madeline Hunter game.''

In response to such reports, Hunter contends that her ideas have been misinterpreted. "I have come out loud and clear that anybody who uses a checklist in observing a lesson does not understand teaching,'' she says. "There is nothing you should expect to see in every lesson. If somebody told me I had to do all these things in every lesson, I'd say, 'I do not; I know better.' There is no such thing as a 'Madeline Hunter' lesson. There's an effective lesson or an ineffective lesson, but not a Madeline Hunter lesson.''

To their credit, many states and districts have tried to keep their Hunter programs from becoming too rigid. "I see her as non-prescriptive,'' says Joyce Murphy, former coordinator of the Teaching Effectiveness Network, a broad Maryland program based on Hunter's ideas. "People criticize Madeline because they take what she says and see it as one model. They don't really listen to what she's saying.'' Adds Bertha Stewart, an elementary instructional assistant in Maryland's Prince George's County: "It's only as rigid as the teacher makes it. You can make any program rigid and you can make any program lax. That's the teacher's choice, not Madeline Hunter's choice.''

Although Hunter has often condemned the use of evaluation checklists, her books readily promote a list mentality. In Mastery Teaching alone, she outlines three categories of decisions in teaching, six ways to increase students' motivation, three principles to improve lectures, four characteristics of an effective model, four factors that affect what students remember, and even four principles of chalkboard use.

The workshop at UCLA offers a different sort of insight into what happens when relative newcomers to the Hunter approach try to incorporate her model into their teaching. After four days of listening to Hunter talk, the participants spend the fifth day teaching short sample lessons and receiving feedback from their colleagues. The lessons cover the gamut--everything from Eskimos to mnemonic devices--but they're remarkably similar in structure. Most start with a "think of a time when ...'' statement, followed by a declaration of the objective, a few minutes of straightforward lecturing, and some questions requiring signal responses from the listeners. Some lessons are better than others, but none of them approaches Hunter proficiency. Nevertheless, the educators are excited as they try to emulate the master. "I've taught that lesson a million times,'' says one participant, "but I feel much better about it now that I've analyzed it.''

A nagging question keeps coming to mind: If these teachers and principals, working directly with Hunter, are inclined to distill her ideas to a few set components, how can the model remain flexible when implemented throughout an entire district? Hunter herself contends that teachers need two years of practice and regular coaching to put her theories into effective practice. But how many districts are willing to make that sort of commitment, especially if they don't see immediate results?
 
Hunter offers few details about her financial status, though she acknowledges that she makes a comfortable living. A 1990 article in the Los Angeles Times Magazine

Clearly, many districts have spent large sums of money to bring Hunter and her model to their schools. Some educators who have been trained in Hunter's ideas and methods aren't convinced it was worth the expense. Kenneth Kastle, principal of William Tennent High School in Warminster, Pa., says his district allocated about $100,000 to train every teacher and administrator in the "essential elements of instruction.'' In the end, Kastle says, it was a waste of money: The program--which is still in effect--has done nothing to improve teaching or learning. "The amazing thing,'' he says, "is that millions and millions of dollars have been spent across the country, so you would think that in some place you would find some positive results.''
Given Hunter's impressive claims, it seems reasonable to expect, as Kastle does, that there is evidence documenting the effectiveness of her methods. But that's not the case.

Hunter, of course, says there are many success stories. She likes to tell one about a failing inner-city elementary school in Los Angeles that she and some colleagues overhauled in the early 1970s. Just by changing the way teachers at the school taught, Hunter says, student learning doubled and, in some instances, quadrupled, and discipline problems virtually disappeared.

Rodney Skager, a colleague of Hunter's at UCLA who studied the project, tells a different story, an ambiguous one at best. "There was improvement in achievement by kids who were in the project for a whole year,'' Skager acknowledges. "But those results are qualified by the fact that the poorer, more mobile kids dropped out.'' Skager never published his study because of this flaw; he says there was no scientific way to say if scores improved because the worst kids moved away or because Hunter's model worked. "It isn't as convincing as Madeline would like it to be,'' he notes.

Other, more recent, research offers similar mixed results. One of the more detailed studies was conducted over four years in Napa County, Calif., where Hunter had consulted with district educators. That study found some positive effects on student achievement during the first two years, but those gains stopped the third year, and achievement actually dropped the fourth year. A study of a statewide Hunter-type program in South Carolina reached a similar conclusion: Teachers were enthusiastic about the training, but student achievement was basically unaffected.

"It never did anything to improve student achievement,'' says Slavin of Johns Hopkins, who is familiar with the various studies. "But that didn't make the slightest difference to anyone'' respon- sible for implementing similar programs in other places.

Hunter blames the lessthan-convincing results in those districts on poor implementation, not the model. "In the Napa study, they did not use the model completely,'' she argues. "They did not teach for transfer, which is essential in my model. And some of the consultants were working with the control school. It was a very messy piece of research.'' And in South Carolina? "They acknowledged that they were not doing the coaching that I said was essential to translate knowledge into practice,'' she says. "You find they actually do not know what I'm saying.''

Furthermore, Hunter maintains that it's almost impossible to conduct a valid study in schools because it's too difficult to control the variables. She argues that her own success is proof enough that her model is effective. "Why did the model start in the 1970s, go like a dreadnought through the '80s and a hurricane in the '90s?'' she asks. "You either have to say educators are so stupid that for 20 years they've continued to use something that obviously doesn't work, or else you have to say it works.''

Hunter's fans seem equally unconcerned by the lack of more concrete evidence. "I'm sure it works,'' says Bertha Stewart, the elementary instructional assistant in Maryland. "I don't have any written research, but I really believe it helps. Not every activity inside the brick walls of schools has to have written research to support it.''

It's tough to be neutral about Madeline Hunter. People love her or hate her, and no amount of evidence will change their minds. Hunter says every component of her model is based on proven psychological studies or other scientific research; her opponents cite studies showing that her model makes no difference in student performance. As Richard Gibboney points out, "Research findings never changed anybody's mind about anything.''

Hunter is well-aware of the criticisms of her work, and she seems to relish the controversy. "They say the strength of an impact is measured by the strength of the opposition to it,'' she says. "If you want no criticism, you do nothing, you say nothing, you be nothing. I have learned that the criticism is inevi- table.''

Hunter refuses to let her critics slow her pace. Although she is well past retirement age, she has no plans to close up shop. Without a doubt, additional teachers and administrators will be captivated by her engaging style and become, to use a phrase that now has many different meanings, "Hunterized.'' Even if Hunter were to stop speaking and writing tomorrow, her message would continue to spread for many years to come. Hunter's faithful adherents would certainly see to that.

Still, resistance to Hunter's methods is growing. Districtwide implementation of her model may become rarer as teachers gain more control over their professional lives--including their inservice training, which is how Hunter usually reaches educators.
One thing is certain: Many teachers will resist Hunter's ideas if school administrators present them as the one correct way to teach, without acknowledging the infinite variables that make every classroom unique. Teacher Sylvia Amato captures the feelings of many teachers: "You have to measure the love and the rapport and all the other things that happen between a teacher and a student, not just the objectives of the lesson.''