A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE JAMES GARDINER/MARY BUTCHART FAMILY
Compiled by Dawn Gardiner James
Efforts to determine the ancestry of my great-grandfather, James Gardiner, tinsmith, have been a challenge as the records are few. Professional researchers were given the scanty information from the records of the Aberdeen and Dundee Branches of the LDS Church in Scotland. The Aberdeen record shows his birth date and place as 23 Dec 1808, Edinburgh. On the Dundee Branch Record his birth date is recorded as 25 Dec 1809. With that bit of conflicting information professional genealogists who have searched for his roots concluded that he probably is the James Gairdner born to Mary Butchard and James Gairdner, soldier, 11th Militia, 22 Dec 1808, and baptized 20 Jan 1809 at Greyfriars Parish, Edinburgh (spelled Grayfriars on that entry).
Assuming that James and Mary were natives of Edinburgh, researchers tried in vain to find the record of their marriage, and births of other children in that city. Considering James' occupation, they should have widened their search. Many soldiers were stationed near Edinburgh in 1808 from other parts of Scotland and England. Had James been a native of Edinburgh he most likely would have been a member of the Edinburgh Militia. Most militia units were named for a county or shire. I have seen few references to the 11th Militia. When David Fyffe married a Mary Butchart at Arbilot, Forfarshire, 29 Jan 1809, he was a member of the 11th Northwest British Militia. When their child was baptized in Nov 1809, David was listed as a principal in the Angusshire Militia.
There is good evidence that James Gairdner, soldier, and Mary Butchard were from Dundee and returned there after the war. Begin with the Dundee marriage of James Gardiner to Marion Butchart 10 Jun 1803. Mary was frequently used as a nickname for Marion. Gairdner, a common spelling of the name on early records of Forfarshire and of Errol, Perth, birthplace of many Dundee Gardiners, may indicate pronunciation. The spelling changed, but the pronunciation may have been the same, and the Greyfriars clerk spelled the name the way it sounded. My father found it amusing to pronounce his name as Gairdner, and I was sure he had heard others say it that way.
Genealogy teachers tell us to get acquainted with the history of the time in which the ancestor lived. What was going on in their world when James and Marion were married? In May 1803, when their marriage was contracted, Great Britain declared war on France. A peace treaty between the two nations in 1802 had proved of little worth. Napoleon simply changed to economic warfare, putting an embargo on all British ships, barring them from all European ports which he controlled. Britain declared war in May 1803, and in 1808 found entrance to the continent through Portugal. Napoleon had made his brother, Joseph, king of Spain, resulting in enough anger to not only allow British troops passage through Spain, but to swell their ranks with Spanish soldiers who assisted in making the Peninsular War or Iberian Campaign a success.
When the regular British military forces were to be engaged abroad, men were encouraged to join the militia, to be trained and stationed at various military bases throughout Great Britain so their homeland would be protected from possible attack.
We may consider the recording of James' birth in Edinburgh a genealogical miracle. It is rare to find the birth of a soldier's child recorded in a regular parish register. Many Dundee marriage records at that time indicate that the groom was already a part of the military. William Gardiner, volunteer, married Catherine Young in 1808, but the first birth recorded to this couple in Dundee was in 1823. Census records show two older sons were born in Dundee, David in 1817, Charles in 1820. No doubt there were other births between 1808 and 1817, perhaps recorded by a military chaplain, but not in the Dundee Parish Register. There are similar gaps in the birth records of many Dundee families during this period.
My brother, James H. Gardiner, found, on the IGI, the Dundee christening of David Gardiner, son of James Gardiner and Mary Butchart. That information led to the determiation to study, not just re-read, the letter written to Alfred Gardiner by his older brother, James Gardiner, brassfinisher, in Dundee. This letter, saved by Alfred's family (bless them), is the only document we have that mentions other family members, and provides the best supporting evidence that we are descended from James Gardiner, soldier, and Mary Butchart. Information in the letter led quickly to a another son and then a daughter of this couple. The letter is dated 7 February 1880. In it James said:
"We had a visit of John Gardner's wife a fortnight ago they are all well as far as I know Old Jack that is uncol he is still working and Lisia Gall a cousen one of her family is maried I have not herd of them since last year."
That brief reference to family members seemed, on many casual readings, to yield little information, but when you "study it out in your mind" there are a number of facts and valuable clues to identify the relatives of James Gardiner, tinsmith. It is evident from the letter that:
1. There was a Mrs. John Gardiner, who kept in touch with other family members and lived close enough to visit James in Dundee.
2. She apparently was known to Alfred because James did not explain her relationship.
3. "They are all well" indicates she had a family.
4. James Gardiner, tinsmith, had a brother John, known to the family as Uncle Jack, living and working in February 1880, probably in Dundee.
5. There are apparently two John Gardiners; James refers to "Old Jack" then further adds uncle to make clear which John he is talking about.
6. James Gardiner, brassfinisher, had a cousin, Lisia Gall (niece to James and Ann).
7. One of Lisia's children married before Feb 1880.
8. Lisia's family did not keep in close touch with James, who had "not heard of them since last year." He explained to Alfred that Lisia is a cousin.
The first obvious search was for an old John Gardiner who died after February 1880. Scotland's death index lists name, age, place and certificate number. A John Gardiner, age 73, died at Dundee in 1891. That record is on film at the Family History Library. Certificate #372, St Andrew District, Dundee: John Gardiner, flaxdresser, widower of Mary Ann Allan, died 27 April 1891 at the Dundee poorhouse, son of James Gardiner, yarn dresser, and Mary Butchart (FHL256351).
"John Gardner's wife" who visited James, cannot be the wife of the older John Gardiner, Mary Ann Allan, who died in 1866; but their oldest son was John Gardiner, tinsmith and gas fitter, who married Margaret Laird, 20 Dec 1866, had a large family, and lived in Dundee. Alfred moved to Dundee in 1866 and, no doubt, knew Uncle Jack, his son John, and Margaret, the Mrs. John Gardiner who visited James Gardiner, brassfinisher, with news of the family.
The cousin, Lisia Gall, I had assumed to be the daughter of Ann Gall's brother (that's also assuming she had a brother). Careful (and prayerful) study of the letter brought an inspired thought. Maybe James Gardiner, tinsmith, had a sister who married a Gall. In my notes of Dundee births was a James Gardiner Gall. That name had caught my attention. He was "named after maternal uncle." His parents were Elizabeth Gardiner and Stephen Gall (FHL993402). Elizabeth's marriage record says she is the daughter of James Gardiner, labourer (FHL993404).
The 1851 Census provided the next piece of the puzzle. Elizabeth Gardiner Gall, age 44, was born at Musselburgh, Edinb (3 Hunter Street, Dundee, ED78, p14, FHL103639). In the 1861 census her age was recorded as 56, born at Musselburgh, Midlothian (Dundee, ED14, p28, FHL103788).
Elizabeth's death certificate (#1039, St Andrew, Dundee, 1884) provides proof of her parentage. She is indeed the daughter of James Gardiner, soldier, and Mary Butchart. It is interesting that the occupation of her father at the time of Elizabeth's birth is the one given on her death certificate, another genealogical miracle. She died 17 Dec 1884 at age 80.
Stephen and Elizabeth had a daughter, Elizabeth Hunter Gall, called Eliza (1851 census). Lisia could be James' unique spelling for 'Liza. She married William Menzies Cameron 4 April 1859. Their oldest son, John Cameron, born 26 Sep 1859, married 30 May 1878, at age 18, so he qualifies as the one of Lisia's family who married before 1880. Eliza apparently moved from Dundee; her fourth child was born at Mains and Strathmartine, Angus in 1870; her fifth child was born at Methvyn, Perth in 1872.
The fact that old Uncle Jack was still working as a flaxdresser in 1880 at age 63 or 64 is evidence of a strong physical constitution. Many flaxdressers died young of some variety of lung disease. (They were also called hacklers, or hecklers, because they used a hackle, a comb-like instrument, - originally hecchel, hatchel - used for cleaning or dressing flax or hemp). John's brother, David, was a flaxdresser, but he died at age 44 of cancer. Flaxdressing may have been chosen because it paid a bit more, according to Pigot's Directory of Dundee of 1837.
"The wages of flaxdressers is about twelve shillings* per week, of weavers, ten shillings, and of girls nine shillings, varying with circumstances; the labour is light and the hours of its exertion from half past five in the morning till seven in the evening, with the customary intervals for meals."
* A shilling is equal to 12 pence or 1/20 of a pound. In 1837 a flaxdresser might earn about 30 pounds a year, compared to the weaver's 25. These low wages explain why children went to work at an early age and many mothers worked at the textile mills, too.
Most of the following notes are taken from birth, marriage, death and census records. They are guaranteed to contain mistakes: mine, the parish clerk's, the census enumerator's, the civil registrar's, the paid researcher's, the informant's at the time of death, and those of individuals who could not remember their own ages, or birth and marriage dates. It's true, we all make mistakes.
My goal was to record just the facts we had found as nearly like the original record as I could, but I realized that in family history research we must sometimes take a leap of faith and base our conclusions on the evidence we have, without absolute proof. This may not be convincing to some, but facts and evidence combined, outweigh supposition and faulty memory.
We are indebted to family members who wrote what they could remember about their forebears. While their stories were not always accurate they provided many essential clues and information that cannot be found on other records. Recognizing our own forgetfulness should make it easy to forgive their errors, and admire their courage in writing from memory.
My mother, Hope Hulet Gardiner, began this search by collecting information from family members, then hiring a professional genealogist who found the Gardiners on LDS branch records, census and birth records in Dundee and Aberdeen, Scotland. My brother, J.H., continued the search and much of the information in this history is a result of his work, including financing most of the paid research. In the fall of 1982 he invited me to go with him and Carol to the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. That was the beginning of an interesting quest, constantly puzzling, often frustrating, but sometimes rewarded with inspiration and success.
HEADINGS AND SOURCES
I have chosen not to repeat headings for census tables, shown on page 5.
The most frequently quoted source is the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, shown as FHL followed by the film number or library call number.
Scotland's certificates can be identified by numbers, but you need a chart to identify the place.
282 is Dundee; 282-1, Dundee, 1st District. 282-1/33 is Dundee, Ist District, Certificate #33.
Districts also have names. 1st/St Peter 2nd/St Mary 3rd/St Clement 4th/ St Andrew.
Then around 1920 they changed: 1st/St Peter and St Mary 2nd/St Clement 3rd/St Andrew.
Much of the information not available at the Family History Library, such as most events after 1875, has come from our paid researcher, James Thompson in Edinburgh.
Words or numbers in brackets [ ] were not in the original source, but are my addition.
I have not usually corrected spelling when recording from the original source, so you will see "rode" for road, "made" for maid, and other interesting words.
A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY
OF THE JAMES GARDINER/MARY BUTCHART FAMILY
About 1778 Two important people were born in Scotland: James Gardiner, son of James Gardiner; Marion Butchart, daughter of George Butchart, weaver.
10 Jun 1803 Marriage of James Gardiner, Jun'r, cotton spinner, and Marion Butchart, daughter of George Butchart, weaver; both of this parish. Contracted 21 May 1803 (Dundee Parish Register, FHL102612).
1804/1807 Elizabeth Gardiner, daughter of James Gardiner, soldier, and Mary Butchart, was born at Musselburgh, Midlothian. Possible birth years calculated from census ages: age 44 in 1851, age 56 in 1861; and death age, 80 in 1884.
22 Dec 1808 Births, Edinburgh: James Gairdner, soldier, 11th Militia, and Mary Butchard, his spouse, Grayfriars Parish, a son. Born 22'd Dec last, named James. BC [Baptized in Church] 20 Jan 1809 (Parochial Register, County of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, B. 1807-1814, 168-1, p84, #41, FHL103040; 168-1 is the number of Greyfriars Parish).
About 1816 John Gardiner, son of James Gardiner and Mary Butchart, was born at Dundee (Death Cert. #372 St Andrew Dist, Dundee, 1891, and census information).
3 Feb 1818 David Gardiner, son of James Gardiner, labourer, and Mary Butchart, was born at Dundee. Baptized 12 April 1818. Named after D. Jobson, Esq. (FHL102611)
3 Aug 1827 Elizabeth, daughter of James Gardiner and Mary Butchart, md Stephen Gall (p6).
19 Nov 1836 John, son of James Gardiner and Mary Butchart, married Mary Ann Allan (see p35).
2 Feb 1838 James Gardiner, son of James Gardiner and Mary Butchart, married Ann Gall at Aberdeen (see p10).
7 Jun 1841 Census: Dallfield Walk, Dundee (ED71, p6, FHL101801) Adult ages rounded down.
NAME AGE OCCUPATION BIRTHPLACE
James Gardner 60 Labourer in county
Mary Gardner 60 in county
David Gardner 20 Flaxdresser in county
1841/1851 James Gardiner, Jr, father of James Gardiner, tinsmith, died during this time period.
In 1851 the census added Relationship to Head of Household, Marital Status, Occupation, and a more detailed Birthplace. In the following census heading, RELA is Relationship to head of household; MAR is Marital status; the occupation column may also state economic condition, or rank.
31 Mar 1851 Census of 10 Scouringburn, Dundee (ED27, p29, Sch97, FHL103637).
NAME RELA MAR AGE OCCUPATION BIRTHPLACE
Mary Gardner Wife Wid 73 suported by her son Forfarshire, Dundee
David Gardner Son Unm 32 flaxdreser Forfarshire, Dundee
28 Aug 1854 David Gardiner, son of James Gardiner (deceased) and Mary Butchart, married Jean Bruce (see p42).
8 Mar 1861 Mary Butchard, age 86 years, died at 5:30 a.m. at poorhouse; general debility. Widow of _____?_____. No parents listed. Informant: Thomas Thornton, House Porter. As certified by P. M. Baxter, who saw her on 7th Mar. (#290, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL224409. We have no proof that she is our Mary Butchard.)
FAMILY OF ELIZABETH GARDINER/STEPHEN GALL
3 Aug 1827 Marriage of Stephen Gall, overseer, & Elizabeth Gardiner, dau'r of James Gardiner, Labourer, both in this parish. Contracted 13 Jul 1827 (Dundee Parish Register, p106, FHL993404).
12 Apr 1828 James Gardiner Gall, son of Stephen Gall and Elizabeth Gardiner, was born at Dundee; named after his maternal uncle, christened 4 May 1828 (FHL993402).
5 Apr 1831 Elizabeth Hunter Gall, daughter of Stephen Gall and Elizabeth Gardiner was born at Dundee and christened 17 apr 1831 (FHL993402).
1 Nov 1833 Mary Gall, daughter of Stephen Gall and Elizabeth Gardiner was born at Dundee and christened 17 Nov 1833 (FHL993402).
7 Jun 1841 Census of South Side of Scouringburn Rode, Dundee. (ED45, p11, FHL101801)
Sephan Gall 30 Mill Foreman in county
Mrs. Gall 30 not in county
James Gall 14 Iron Bearer in county
Eliza Gall 10 in county
Mary Gall  9 in county
1 Mar 1851 Census of 3 Hunter Street, Dundee (ED78, pp14-15, FHL103639)
Stephen Gall Head Mar 45 Mill overseer Forfarshire, Arbroath
Elizabeth Gall Wife Mar 44 Millworker Musselburgh, Edinb shire
James Gall Son U 20 Brassfounder Dundee
Eliza Gall Daur U 18 Millworker Dundee
Mary Gall Daur U 16 Dundee
5 Dec 1851 James [Gardiner] Gall married Jean Talbert. (see below)
27 Nov 1853 Mary Gall, 17, daughter of Stephen Gall, labourer, died at Reeds Close, Park Wynd, Dundee. Bur: 431-C (FHL102619).
4 Apr 1859 Elizabeth Hunter Gall married William Menzies Cameron (see p8).
23 Apr 1861 Census: Elizabeth Gardiner Gall is listed with her daughter (see p8).
3 Apr 1881 Census of Combination Poorhouse for the Parish of Dundee and the parish of Liff and Benvie, at Stobswell, Maryfield, Dundee, 4th Dist (ED44, Book C, p10, FHL203489)
Elisth. Gardner or Gall, Widow 75 Unknown Musselburgh
17 Dec 1884 Elizabeth Gall died, age 80, at 1:10 a.m. at East Poorhouse, Dundee. Cause of death: Paralysis. Pauper, widow of Stephen Gall, cattle drover. Daughter of James Gardiner, soldier (dec) and Mary Gardiner MS Butchart (dec) (#1039, 4th Dist, Dundee).
FAMILY OF JAMES GARDINER GALL/JEAN TALBERT
16 Mar 1831 Jean Talbert daughter of George Talbert and Christina Yeaman was christened at Dundee (FHL993402).
5 Dec 1851 James [Gardiner] Gall, brassfounder, married Jean Talbert, daughter of Geo. Talbert [and Christina Yeaman], at Dundee. Contracted 15 Nov 1851 (FHL993404, p187).
28 Jun 1854 James Gall, brassfounder, and Jean Talbert, a L.D., Elizabeth, bo. 28th Jan 1854. Wit: Alexander Kippie, Robert Jack (Glasgow City Register, p302, FHL994183.
L.D. is lawful daughter.)
11 Dec 1856 George Gall was born at 3 p.m. at 6 Sharp's Lane, Main Street, Anderston, Glasgow. Father: James Gall, brassfounder. Mother: Jean Gall, maiden name, Talbert. Signed: James Gall, father, present (#1398 Anderston, FHL256493)
9 Jan 1858 James Gall was born at 2 a.m. at 17 Perth Street, Anderston, Glasgow.
Father: James Gall, brassfounder. Mother: Jean Gall, maiden name, Talbert.
Signed: Ann Yuile, a neighbor, 15 Perth Street, her mark X, present (FHL280522).
14 Mar 1860 Steven Gall was born at 6:00 a.m. at 19 Perth Street, Anderston, Glasgow.
Father: James Gall, (journeyman) brassfounder. Mother: Jean Gall, maiden name, Talbert (FHL280649).
FAMILY OF ELIZABETH HUNTER GALL/WILLIAM MENZIES CAMERON
4 Apr 1859 At Paradise Road, after banns according to the form of the United Presbyterian Church, William Menzies Cameron, age 25, residing at No. 14 Dallfield Walk, workman at a calender* work, bachelor, son of John Cameron and Mary Menzies (dec), married Elizabeth Hunter Gall, age 22, residing at No. 14 Dallfield Walk, millworker, spinster, daughter of Stephen Gall, tenter, and Elizabeth Gardiner (#53, 1st Dist, Dundee, or 282-1/53; FHL280221).
*A calender is a machine with rollers between which paper or cloth is run to give it a smooth or glossy finish.
26 Sep 1859 John Cameron was born at 0:30 a.m. at Idves Street, Joint Stocks, Dundee. Son of William Cameron, calenderer, and Elizabeth Gall. Signed: William Cameron, father, not present (#1278, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL280554).
23 Apr 1861 Census, Dundee, 6 Idvies Street (ED 14, pg 28, Sch 153, FHL103788)
William M. Cameron Head Mar 27 jute green cloth finisher Dundee
Elizabeth Cameron Wife Mar 25 Dundee
John Cameron Son 1 Dundee
Elizabeth Gall, Mo-in-law Mar 56 formerly Linen Mill Worker
1 May 1861 Isabella Cameron was born at 5:00 a.m. at Land 6, Joint Stocks, Dundee. Daughter of William Cameron, calender worker, and Elizabeth Gall. Md 4 Feb 1859, Dundee
Signed: William Cameron, father, present (#673, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL224095).
16 May 1863 William Menzies Cameron was born at 1:00 a.m. at Lowson's Land, Pole Park, Dundee. Daughter of William Cameron, seaman MS, and Elizabeth Gall. Signed: Elizabeth Cameron, mother (#670, 2nd Dist, Dundee, FHL294807).
25 Aug 1867 Elizabeth Gardner Cameron was born at Dundee (IGI).
24 Mar 1870 Stephen Henry Cameron was born at 4:30 a.m. at Fairlie Place (Fintry Fues) Parish of Mains, Angus. Son of William Cameron, calenderer, and Elizabeth Gall, Md 4 Feb 1859, Dundee. Signed: William Cameron, father, present (#19, Mains [and Strathmartine], Angus, FHL352805).
9 Nov 1872 Mary Menzies Cameron was born at 5:15 a.m. at Methven, Perth. Daughter of William Menzies Cameron, calenderer, and Elizabeth Hunter Gall, Md 4 Feb 1859, Dundee. Signed: William M. Cameron, father, present (#63, Methven, Perth, FHL300082).
30 May 1878 At St Mary's Chapel, Dundee, Roman Catholic. John Cameron, 18, bachelor, foundry mechanic, 8 Clepington Street. Son of William Cameron, seaman M.S., and Elizabeth Cameron MS Gall, married Helen Conway, 22, spinster, power loom weaver, 34 Back Street. Daughter of John Conway, master stone packer and Margaret Conway MS O'Brien. Witnesses: Edward O'Brien, Margaret Martin; her X mark (#125, St Andrew, Dundee, Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
FAMILY OF JAMES GARDINER/ANN GALL
2 Feb 1838 James Gardiner, tinsmith, [son of James Gardiner, Jr. and Mary Butchart] married Ann Gall [daughter of M. Gall and Jennie Sadler] at Aberdeen. (Date from Arthur's birth record. Ann's parents' names are from her death record.)
12 Nov 1838 Jane Gardiner, daughter of James and Ann, was born at Aberdeen (Alfred's Record).
16 Apr 1840 James Gardiner, son of James and Ann, was born at Aberdeen (Alfred's Record, and the record of the Aberdeen Branch, LDS Church; FHL104149).
1841 We have searched the 1841 census of Dundee, Dunfirmline, and Aberdeen, but have not found James, Ann and their children. Alfred said his sister, Ann, was born in Ireland. Athol W. McMaster, who baptized James, went to Ireland about 1840, looking for work (Journal of Athol W. McMaster, BYU). There was much travel in 1840 and after as the rail system made moving easy. James may have sought greener pastures in Ireland, too.
30 Apr 1842 This date appears on the page of Alfred's record as the birth date of Richard or 1847? Gardiner, but it should not be accepted as fact. It leaves just 9 1/2 months between the birth dates of Richard and Anne. Alfred lists just one Richard, born 30 Apr 1842 with the death date, 15 Aug 1848, which is the birth date of the other Richard. He placed this record after Robert making the birth date out of sequence, with 1842 after 1845. The year 1847 is more believable, with 18 months between Robert and the first Richard and 15 1/2 months between the two Richards.
13 Feb 1843 Ann Gardiner, daughter of James and Ann, was born (in Ireland? Alfred's Record).
24 Oct 1845 Robert Gardiner, son of James and Ann, was born at Liff, Forfarshire (Day: family records; Aberdeen Branch Record says 22 Oct 1845 (FHL104149). Place: from 1861 Census of Old Machar, Aberdeen (FHL103778). Liff was a village near Dundee which eventually became a part of that city).
30 Mar 1847 Anne Gardiner, daughter of James and Ann, died (Alfred's record).
Abt 1848 The Dundee Branch Record lists James Gardiner, married, office of teacher, born 25 Dec 1809 at Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland. Baptized and confirmed by W. Athol McMaster at Dunfirmline; no date given (DBR, p88, #46, FHL104150).
30 Jan 1848 James Gardiner was ordained a teacher by Wm. Gibson (DBR, FHL104150).
15 Aug 1848 Richard Gardiner, son of Ann Gardiner, was born at Dundee (DBR, p49, FHL104150).
29 Nov 1848 Ann [Gall] Gardiner, married, born 31 Jan'ry 1818, Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, Scotland, was baptized at Dundee by Elder H. Findlay; confirmed 30 Nov 1848 by H.P. [High Priest] Wm. Gibson (DBR, p91, #145, FHL104150).
3 Dec 1848 Richard Gardiner, son of Ann Gardiner, was blessed at Dundee Branch by Wm. Gibson (DBR, FHL104150).
3 Apr 1850 Matilda Gardiner, daughter of James and Ann was born at Dundee (family records).
31 Mar 1851 Census of 17 Heans Lane, Dundee (ED77, p22, FHL103639)
James Gardiner Head Mar 42 Tinsmith Midlothian, Edinburgh
Ann Gall Wife Mar 33 Kincardineshire, Stonehaven Jane Gardiner Daur 12 Aberdeenshire James Gardiner Son 10 Aberdeenshire
Robert Gardiner Son 5 Forfarshire, Dundee
Matilda Gardiner Daur 1 Forfarshire, Dundee
11 Nov 1852 Frederick Gardiner, son of James Gardiner and Ann Gall was born at Dundee Nov 1852 (Dundee Branch Record, p51, FHL104150. Day from family records.)
23 Nov 1853 James Gardiner, Jun'r, born Aberdeen, 16 Apr 1840, was baptized at Dundee by David Burnett; confirmed 30 Nov 1853 (DBR, p25, FHL104150).
1855 Civil Registration began in Scotland. 1855 Birth, Marriage and Death Records contain more information than any taken since. Ralph's birth record says he is the 9th child; that 1 girl and 2 boys have died, evidence that there were two Richards in the family.
21 Apr 1855 Ralph Gardiner was born at 5:15 a.m. at Smalls Wynd, Dundee; son of James Gardiner, tinsmith, age 48 yrs, born Edinburgh; and Ann Gardiner, maiden name, Gall; 9th birth, age 38 yrs, born Stonehaven, married 1838, Aberdeen. 3 Boys and 2 Girls living; 2 Boys, 1 Girl dead (#395, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL833323, item 2).
2 Sep 1855 Robert Gardiner, born 22 Oct 1845, Dundee, Forfar, Scotland, was baptized at Aberdeen, 2 Sep 1855, confirmed 12 Sep 1855; by John McBeath. Emigrated 1868 (Aberdeen Branch Record, p2, FHL104149).
30 Oct 1856 James Gardiner, Sen'r received from the Dundee Branch, Dundee Conference, 30 Oct 1856, cut off for rebellion, 30 Oct 1856 (ABR, p51, FHL104149).
... Gardiner and James Gardiner, Jun'r received from the Dundee Branch, Dundee Conference Dec 2nd 1855, cut off for rebellion 30th October 1856 (ABR, p25, FHL104149. The unreadable name (...) in this entry, is on the bottom line, corner of the page. It takes less space than the name James just above it, so it cannot be Robert; it could be Ann, or, a correction of the "received" date above for James, Sen'r, it could be "Jas. Gardiner and James Gardiner, Jun'r received ...")
19 Aug 1858 Alfred Gardiner was born at 2:00 p.m. at 6 College Lane, Old Machar, Aberdeen; son of James Gardiner, tinsmith (journeyman), and Ann Gardiner, Maiden Name, Gall; signed: Ann Gardiner, mother (#610 Old Machar, Aberdeen, p204, FHL280485).
30 Aug 1858 Jane Gardiner married William Stewart. (See page 16)
8 Apr 1861 Census of 7 Cottage Lane, Dist. 168b, Old Machar, Aberdeen, ED 15, p38, Sch 270 (FHL103778, near end of film. It does say 7 Cottage Lane, rather than 6, probably an enumerator's error.)
James Gardiner Head Mar 52 Tinsmith Edinburgh Ann Gardiner Wife Mar 43 Kincardineshire, Fetteresso
James Gardiner Son Unm 20 Brass Founder Aberdeenshire, Old Machar
Robert Gardiner Son 15 Pastry Cook (Ap) Forfarshire, Liff
Matilda Gardiner Daur 11 Scholar Forfarshire, Dundee
Frederick Gardiner Son 8 Scholar Forfarshire, Dundee
Ralph Gardiner Son 5 Scholar Forfarshire, Dundee Alfred Gardiner Son 2 Aberdeenshire, Old Machar
It was noted that the family had 3 children between the ages of 5 and 15 years attending school. Also, they had 2 rooms with 1 or more windows
26 Jun 1861 Arthur Gardiner was born at 7 p.m. at 6 Cottage Lane, Aberdeen, the son of James Gardiner, tinsmith (journeyman), and Ann Gardiner MS Gall, who married 2nd February 1838. Informant: Ann Gardiner, mother (#510, p170, Old Machar, Aberdeen; FHL224086. The index does not list Arthur. #510 is recorded as John Gardiner, but the certificate #510 on page 170 gives his correct name, Arthur.)
16 Nov 1861 James Gardiner, born 23 Dec 1808, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland, was baptized 16 Nov 1861; confirmed 17 Nov 1861, by W. S. Baxter. Removed to Dundee (ABR).
17 Nov 1861 James Gardiner was ordained a Priest by William S. Baxter, Aberdeen Branch, Dundee Conference (ABR, FHL104149).
30 Dec 1861 Robert Gardiner, born 22 Oct 1845, Dundee, Forfar, Scotland, was baptized 30 Dec 1851, (clerks error, he meant 1861 as the confirmation date shows, Robert was only 6 years old in Dec 1851, and living in Dundee) confirmed 2 Jan 1862, by J. Mcbeath. Removed to Edinburgh Conference (FHL104149). In the foregoing entry in the Aberdeen Branch Record someone has crossed out the date, 30 Dec 1851, and written 2 Sep 1855 above it, then, "See p. 2."
It is unfortunate that so many family members accepted the wrong baptism date of Robert. Just a little simple math would have told us that he was not baptized in 1852 when he had not yet reached his seventh birthday, but that date was copied on many group sheets without question, thought or minimal research.
1861 On page 10 of the Aberdeen Branch record it says that the Aberdeen Branch was reorganized in 1861 by William Baxter. Three entries listing members are signed by Jas. Gardiner.
8 Mar 1863 Ann Gardiner, born 20 Jan 1817, Fetteresso, Kincardine, Scotland, was baptized 8 Mar 1863 by Jno. McBeath, and confirmed 9 Mar 1863 by Jno. Mcbeath. Removed to Dundee 1866 (Aberdeen Branch Record, FHL104149).
1864-1865 The Aberdeen Branch Record shows several members who were baptized and confirmed by James Gardiner.
1866 James Gardiner, tinsmith, moved his family to Dundee (ABR, FHL104149).
22 Nov 1867 James Gardiner, brassfinisher, married Margaret Fraser. (see page 19)
5 Apr 1868 A member of the Dundee Branch was confirmed by Elder James Gardner (DBR).
20 Jun 1868 Robert and Alfred Gardiner and Margaret Stewart sailed from Liverpool Harbor on the sailing vessel, "Emerald Isle," bound for America. Robert and Margaret were married on board ship by Aurelius Minor, before they sailed (family history). An account of the journey can be found in the record kept by Hans Jensen, Hals, who was in charge of the group. I copied the account of the journey from Liverpool to Utah, omitting the first part of the Journey from Denmark. (MSD 4718).
Soon after Robert left Scotland, the James Gardiner family was listed on the Dundee Branch Record in a section where the names, ages, occupations, birthplaces, "means" of families were recorded, and intentions to emigrate. There were no comments on this page concerning emigration, but Means were listed; none for the Gardiner family.
James Gardner 60 Tinsmith Scotland
Ann Gardner 52 "
Matilda Gardner "
Frederick Gardner 16 "
Ralph Gardner 13 "
Arthur Gardner 8 "
17 Aug 1869 Jane Gardiner Stewart, daughter of James and Ann, died (see page 17).
25 Apr 1870 Matilda Gardiner married John Gunn (see page 28).
3 Apr 1871 Census of 29 Rosebank Road, Dundee (ED21, p28, Sch155; FHL103942)
James Gardiner Head Mar 62 Tinsmith Edinburgh
Ann Gardiner Wife Mar 54 Kincardineshire, Stonehaven
Arthur Gardiner Son 9 Scholar Aberdeenshire, Old Machar
30 Mar 1873 A member of the Dundee Branch was confirmed by Elder James Gardner (DBR).
1874 St Catherines General and Business Directory: James Gardiner, tinsmith
(Copied from Directory at St Catherines Public Library, Sep 1998, St Catherines, Ontario, Canada).
A statement at the beginning of the 1874 Directory says this is the first of its kind for St Catherines. Near the front of the book is an ad for "Simpsons Shipyard," "M. Simpson, Proprietor; George Gardiner, Manager." George is not listed in the regular directory. James was not listed in the later directories that were at the St Catherines Public Library. Both he and George may have lived outside the city.
Other Gardiner names in 1874:
Sarah Gardiner, (widow) 16 Academy St
Edward Gardiner, Provincial Land Surveyor, 52 St Paul St., Res 16 Academy St.
William Gardiner, tinsmith, 96 St Paul St.
There were two Gunns:
Alexander Gunn, clerk, 13 St Paul St.
Frederick Gunn, tinsmith, 90 Lake St.
It is very likely that at least one of the Gardiners is a close relative, which would explain why they chose St Catherines. George could be a brother to James Gardiner, tinsmith, named after his grandfather, George Butchart. The number of tinsmiths is interesting, also the possibility that the Gunns are related to John, Matilda's husband.
1875 Directory of St Catherines:
Mrs. Sarah Gardiner, wid, Henry, 16 Academy
Edward Gardiner, 16 Academy
Thomas Gardiner, ship carpenter, Water ss
Frederick Gunn, tinsmith, 90 Lake Ave
John Gunn, Moulder and butcher, Welland Ave ss
1877/1878 Directory of St Catherines:
Frederick G. Gunn of Wilmott & Gunn, 90 Lake Ave ss
John Gunn, police constable, Albert ss
10 Sep 1878 James Gardiner, [tinsmith], died at St. Catherines, Lincoln, Ontario, Canada; age 70 years. Birthplace: Scotland. Occupation: mechanic. Cause of death: Drowning. Informant: John Gunn. Registered 10 Sep 1878. Religion: Presbyterian. #1878-05-007900, FHL1853224). The death record did not list parents or spouse of the deceased.
12 Nov 1878 Frederick Gardiner married Eliza Jane Fisher (see page 31).
24 Jan 1879 Ralph Gardiner married Elizabeth Masterton (see page 32).
After 1882 Frederick's family moved to Vancouver, B. C. (family history).
May 1885 John and Matilda Gunn were living in Minneapolis, Minnesota (Louise Aiston Chamberlain).
Apr 1886 Ralph's family moved from Scotland to Minneapolis where his mother, Ann, and sister, Matilda were living.
3 May 1886 Ann Gall Gardiner, widow of James Gardiner, tinsmith, died at Minneapolis, Hennepin, Minnesota. Daughter of M. Gall and Jennie Sadler.
FAMILY OF JANE GARDINER/WILLIAM STEWART
30 Aug 1858 6 College Lane, Aberdeen. Marriage (after Banns) was solemnized between us according to the forms of the Evangelical Union Church.
(Signed) William Stuart, 20, Residing at Barracks, Aberdeen. Private, 93rd Highlanders, (Bachelor). Son of Charles Stuart, tailor (deceased), and Jessie Stuart, maiden name, McPherson (deceased).
(Signed) Jane Gardiner, age 19; residing at 6 College Lane, Power Loom Weaver, (Spinster). Daughter of James Gardiner, Tinsmith (journeyman), and Ann Gardiner, maiden name, Gall. Witnesses: William Still, John Simpson (#110, District 168-2, Old Machar, Aberdeen, Dist 168-2; p55, FHL280176. This is the only record where William's surname has the French spelling.)
The following information is from the India Office Records, which are Chaplains Returns, the reports of baptisms, marriages and deaths that military chaplains abroad were required to report to London. They appear to be more for statistics than for identification. The 93rd Highlanders first appear on the Jul-Dec 1860 returns from Rawul, Pindee, India (FHL499001).
2 Apr 1862 Baptisms at Peshawur, India in connection with the Church of Scotland. Robert James Stewart, son of William and Jane Stewart, was baptized 15 Apr 1862; said to be born 2 Apr 1862. Father: Private, 93rd Highlanders. Hugh Drennan, Chaplain (India Office Records, FHL499006).
3 Oct 1864 Baptisms at Sealcote, Punjab, India, in connection with the Church of Scotland. Alexander Stewart, son of William and Jane Stewart, was baptized 16 Oct 1864; said to be born 3 Oct 1864. Father: Private, 93rd Highlanders. Hugh Drennan, Chaplain (IOR, FHL499016. Sealcote and Peshawur are now Sialcot and Peshawar, Pakistan.)
27 May 1866 Burials at Sealcote in connection with the Church of Scotland. 27 May 1866 Alexander Stewart died age 1 and 8/12. Child of a private, 93rd Highlanders. Buried 28th May 1866. Cause of death: Namia. Hugh Drennan, Chaplain, 93rd Highlanders (IOR, FHL499022).
31 Aug 1866 Baptisms at Sealcote, Punjab, India, in connection with the Church of Scotland. Alfred Stewart, son of William and Jane Stewart, was baptized 23 Sep 1866, said to be born 31 Aug 1866. Father: Private, 93rd Highlanders. Hugh Drennan, Chaplain (IOR, FHL499023).
4 Oct 1868 Baptisms at Jhansi, India, in connection with the Church of Scotland. Jane Stewart, daughter of William and Jane Stewart was baptized 18 Oct 1868, said to be born 4 Oct 1868. Father: Private 93rd Highlanders; Hugh Drennan, Chaplain (IOR, FHL499032).
14 Aug 1869 Burials at Jhansi, India in connection with the Church of Scotland. Jane Stewart, age 10 months, died 14 Aug 1869 at Jhansi, India. Child of a Private, 93rd Highlanders. Buried 15 Aug 1869. Cause of death: convulsis. Hugh Drennan, Chaplain (IOR, FHL499035).
17 Aug 1869 Burials at Jhansi in connection with the Church of Scotland. Jane Stewart, age 28, wife of a Private, 93rd Highlanders, died at Jhansi, India. Buried 18 Aug 1869. Cause of death: Cholera (IOR, FHL499035).
Only a letter from the chaplain, Hugh Drennan, to Jane's mother identifies this Jane Stewart and her daughter. Apparently, a returning officer was given the responsibility of delivering the notice of death to the family (see page 21). In a phone conversation Alfred's daughter, Margrett Gardiner Muenter, told me this letter was delivered to the Gardiner family by Corporal John Gunn who had served in India with the 93rd Highlanders. He had known and liked Jane there, so when he met her beautiful sister, Matilda, he soon became her admirer, courted and married her.
The chaplain's letter establishes the date of Jane's death, the number of children who survived her, and that James and Ann are talking of going to America. Waiting for their Stewart grandchildren to arrive from India and caring for them for a time may have delayed those plans. We also learn that William Stewart had a sister in India with the 92nd Highlanders. The Margaret Stewart, who married at Dundee in the following account, had a daughter, Williamina, born in India, age 10 in 1881).
18 Jun 1860 After banns, marriage was solemnized between us according to the forms of the Church of Scotland, at 137 Seagate, Dundee. (Signed) Alexander Staig, his X mark, age 23, Soldier, 92nd Reg, Reg ... 678; bachelor. Address: 2 Castle Court, Castle Street, Dundee. Son of Alexander Staig, farmer, Auchtermuchty, [Fife] and Margaret Kidd. (Signed) Margaret Stewart, age 21, domestic servant, spinster. Address: Castle Court. Daughter of Charles Stewart, tailor, Coupar Angus, (dec) and Jessie McPherson, (dec). Witnesses: Elizabeth Dodd, David Kidd. James Dodd, Minister of St Clement (FHL292770).
Margaret was 28, not 21, born 30 Jul 1831. Her age on later census records shows her two years older than her husband. On the 1841 Census of Coupar Angus her age is reported as 10  and her brother, William, is 7. In the Coupar Angus Parish Register, which was poorly kept, there are two irregular entries for this family; one lists a second Margaret born 2 Aug 1835, but the first Margaret was still living, if the census was correct. 2 Aug 1835 may be William's birth date.
The chaplain's letter follows. The copy of the letter is difficult to read and there are some blank spaces. The words in brackets are my guesses as to what was written in the blanks. That the letter is to Jane's mother, and does not include her father raises some questions. Surely this was not the usual form in such letters.
Dear Mrs. Gardiner,
It is with much pain that I take on myself the sad duty of making you acquainted with the death of your daughter, Jane. She died on the 17th of this month of cholera after about 24 hours of illness. She had previously been much weakened through her too assiduous labors among the sick women of the regiment [and] through the anxieties connected [with the illness of her child who died] three days before her. I saw her twice during her illness. The first time she was quite sensible although s[carsely] able to speak and seemed pleased with such ministrations as I was able to offer her.
You will be pleased to learn that there was no woman in the regiment more respected than your daughter was. It is felt and said by everyone that there is not a woman in the regiment left who is capable of filling her place as hospital matron. We all feel her loss very much. I do so especially, for during the last seven years she has been my warmest and closest friend.
She has left two children behind her. For the present these are being cared for. What is to become of them ultimately has not been decided. Stewart says that if you are still at home he will come home with the regiment in the beginning of next year, but that if you have all gone to America as you were talking of doing, he will volunteer to the 92nd Highlanders where his sister is and continue in this country. Will you therefore kindly send out word at once whether you will be at home in April next, that Stewart may know what [to do].
Trusting that this letter will reach you safely,
With Christian sympathy Yours faithfully
Chaplain, 93rd Highlanders
JAMES GARDINER/MARGARET FRASER
22 Nov 1867 Paradise Road, Dundee, after banns according to the forms of the U.P. Church,
James Gardiner, brassfinisher, 27, bachelor, Rosebank Road, Son of James Gardiner, tinsmith, and Ann Gardiner MS Gall, married Margaret Frazer, domestic servant, 21, spinster, Seagate, Dundee. Daughter of George Fraser, joiner, and Grace Fraser MS Rodger. Witnesses: Robert Gardiner, Margaret Duncan (282-1/466, FHL348998).
12 May 1868 Grace Rodger Gardiner born at 12:30 p.m. at Bacon's Land, North Wellington Street, Dundee. Daughter of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, jour, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser, married 22 Nov 1867. Signed by James Gardiner, father (#600, 4th Dist, Dundee; FHL352731).
15 Jul 1868 Grace Rodger Gardiner died, age 2 mos. at 9:15 a.m. at Bacon's Land, North Wellington Street, Dundee. Daughter of James Gardiner, brass finisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser. Cause: tubercular meningitis 7 days. Informant: father, present (#466 St Andrew, Dundee, FHL363251).
5 Jul 1869 James Gardiner was born at 3:30 p.m. at 15 Lawson Place, Dundee. Son of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser, who married 22 Nov 1867. James Gardiner, father, present (#560, St Clement, Dundee; FHL340317).
3 Apr 1871 Census of 223 Hilltown, Dundee (ED14, Sch50, p8, FHL103943)
James Gardiner Head Mar 31 Brass Finisher Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire
Margaret Gardiner Wife Mar 25 Domestic Servant Grangemouth, Stirlingshire
James Gardiner Son 1 Dundee, Forfarshire
2 Sep 1871 Margaret Grace Gardiner was born at 10:30 p.m. at 13 Melville Lane, Montrose, Angus. Daughter of James Gardiner, brassfinisher and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser. Married 22 Nov 1867, Dundee. Signed: James Gardiner, father, present (#312, Montrose, FHL224474).
5 Mar 1873 George Gardiner was born at 7 Rosebank Road, Dundee. Son of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser, who married 22 Nov 1867 (#197 St Clement, Dundee, FHL300149).
13 Nov 1874 Janet Gardiner was born at 19 Bain Square, Dundee. Daughter of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser, who married 22 Nov 1867, Dundee (#1491 St Andrew, Dundee; FHL329025).
1874-1875 General Directory of Dundee lists James Gardiner, brassfinisher, at 223 Hilltown (FHL 941.31, E 4 d).
20 Jul 1876 Jane Ann Gardiner was born at 78 Caldrum Street, Dundee. Daughter of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser (#1157 St Andrew, Dundee; Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
4 Oct 1877 Henry Fraser Gardiner born at 43 Hospital Wynd, Dundee. Son of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser, married 22 Nov 1867
(#846 St Clement, Dundee; Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
14 Jan 1878 Jane Ann Gardiner died at 43 Hospital Wynd, Dundee; age 1 yr 5 mos. Cause: tubercular meningitis 14 days. Daughter of James Gardiner, brass finisher, and Margaret Simpson Gardiner MS Frazer. Informant: James Gardiner, father, present (#28, St Clement, Dundee; Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
20 Jun 1878 Henry Fraser Gardiner died at 43 Hospital Wynd, Dundee; age 8 mos. Cause: meningitis 3 mos. Son of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser. Informant: father, present (#277 St Clement, Dundee; Research by JT).
29 Apr 1879 Jane Bain Gardiner was born at Royal Lunatic Asylum, Dundee, (domicil 28 Kinloch Street, Dundee). Daughter of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser (#761 St Andrew, Dundee; Research by James Thompson).
10 Oct 1879 Jane Bain Gardiner died at 28 Kinloch Street, Dundee, age 5 mos. Cause: diarrhea, inflammation of stomach. Daughter of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser. Informant: James Gardiner, father, present (#434 St Clement, Dundee. Research by James Thompson).
4 Apr 1881 Census of 44 Wigton Street, Glasgow (644-8, ED35, p8, FHL0203657)
James Gardner Head Mar 41 Brassfinisher Aberdeen, Aberdeen
Margaret F Gardner Wife Mar 35 Stirling, Grangemouth
James Gardner Son 11 Scholar [Forfar], Dundee
Margaret Gardner Daur 9 Scholar Forfar, Montrose
George Gardner Son 8 Scholar [Forfar], Dundee
Janet Gardner Daur 6 Scholar [Forfar], Dundee
(On the 1881 Census Index ABD is given as the county for Dundee.
3 Sep 1884 Alfred Gardiner was born at 159 Gardner Street, Milton, Glasgow. Son of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, journeyman, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser, who married 22 Nov 1867, Dundee. Informant: James Gardiner, father, present (#1228 Milton, Glasgow, Research by James Thompson).
26 Aug 1898 Margaret Grace Gardiner, 26, spinster, domestic servant, residing at 90 Easter Road, Edinburgh; daughter of James Gardiner, brass founder, and Margaret Simpson Gardiner MS Fraser, married William Bryce, 26, bachelor, engine keeper, Colinton; Son of Robert Bryce, paper maker, and Catherine Bryce MS Cairns. Married at 5 Vanburgh Place, South Leith, Co. Edinburgh; Church of Scotland. Witnesses: Janet Gardiner and John Cairns. (#302 South Leith; Research by James Thompson)
James Thompson checked all George Gardiners marrying in Scotland 1889 - 1913, but found no trace of the son of James Gardiner and Margaret Fraser (Letter, 4 Apr 1992).
James Thompson also searched Deaths of Scotland 1873 - 1983, allowing two years either side of age. He found no trace of George, son of James Gardiner and Margaret Fraser, but he noted the following military death which may be that of their son, George, who would have been 27 in 1900.
6 Jun 1900 Returns of Deaths made to Registrar General for England 1885-1906 (vol 52 p. 209)
Military Station (blank)
Designation of Corps: (blank)
Died: 6 June 1900 Ranikhet
Name: George Gardiner (Scotch) Male
Rank: L/Cpl 3990
Cause: Abscess of the liver
Informant: P M Ellis Lt Col R.A.M.C. I/C Station Hospital, Ranikhet
Registered: 6.6.00 Ranikhet
Returning Officer: John Campbell, Captain, A.D.J.T. 2/A & S.H.
(Ranikhet, in northern India, is a little over 50 miles west of the Nepal border in mountainous, sparsely settled country.)
20 Jul 1900 Janet Gardiner, 27, spinster, domestic servant, 29 Colquhoun Square, Helensburgh, Daughter of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser, married Hugh Rice, 45, widower, gardener, 26 George Street, Helensburgh. Son of Hugh Rice, gardener, and Isabella Rice MS Peel. Church of Scotland (#27 Helensburgh, Row Dist, Co. Dumbarton; Research by James Thompson).
23 Jul 1904 Janet Gardiner Rice died at 33 East King Street, Helensburgh, age 30 yrs, Phthisis Pulmonalis, 1 month 4 days, married to Hugh Rice, gardener. Daughter of James Gardiner, brass finisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser. Informant: Hugh Rice, widower, present (#100, Helensburgh, Co. Dumbarton, Research by James Thompson).
29 Dec 1911 At the Manse, Bathgate, Co. Linlithgow; Church of Scotland. Alfred Gardiner, 30, bachelor, joiners machineman, 172 Morrison Street Edinburgh. Son of James Gardiner, brass finisher (dec) and Margaret Fraser, married Agnes Purdie, 33, widow, domestic servant, 10 Chapel Lane, Bathgate. Daughter of Robert Hendry, joiner, and Catherine Hendry MS Baillie. Witnesses: Robert Hendry & Mary Ryan (#58 Bathgate, Research by James Thompson).
4 May 1922 Margaret Fraser Gardiner died at 7 Wheatfield Place, Edinburgh, age 76 years. Organic heart disease, widow of James Gardiner, brass finisher, daughter of George Fraser, joiner (dec), and Margaret Fraser MS Simpson* (dec) Informant: Alfred Gardiner, son, present (#207, Dist 8, Edinburgh, Research by James Thompson).
*(Margaret's mother's name is Grace Fraser MS Rodger.)
11 Oct 1942 Margaret Grace Gardiner Bryce died at Hospital for Women, Whitehouse Loan, Edinburgh. Usual residence: 7 Wheatfield Place, Edinburgh. Age 71 yrs. Gastric carcinoma operation/partial gastrectomy & gastoen terostomy post operative, broncho pneumonia. Widow of William Bryce, boiler fireman. Daughter of James Gardiner, brass founder (dec) and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser (dec). Informant: Robert Bryce, son, 18 Caledonian Place, Edinburgh (#1103, Dist 7, Edinburgh; Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
4 Nov 1945 James Gardiner died at Eastern General Hospital, Leith. Age 77 years, single. Retired plasterer; Usual residence: 3 Guthrie Street, Edinburgh. Son of James Gardiner, brassfinisher, and Margaret Gardiner MS Fraser (#834 Leith, Edinburgh; Research by James Thompson).
11 Oct 1957 Agnes Gardiner died at Queensbury House Hospital, Cannongate; usual residence: 21 High Street, Portobello. Age 75 yrs. Married to (1) Thomas Purdie, coal miner, (2) Alfred Gardiner, picture framer. Daughter of Robert Hendry, joiner (dec) and Catherine Hendry MS Bailie (dec). Informant: Alfred Gardiner, widower, 21 High Street, Portobello (#491 Canongate, Edinburgh; Research by James Thompson)
3 May 1963 Alfred Gardiner died at 1 Glenlocket Road, Edinburgh. Age 78 yrs, steel foundry labourer, retired. Widower of Agnes Hendry or Purdie. Son of James Gardiner, brassfinisher (dec) and Margaret Fraser Gardiner MS Simpson* (dec). Informant: C. Simmonds, step daughter, 84 Muir-house Crescent, Edinburgh (#358 Edinburgh).
*(Margaret Simpson Gardiner MS Fraser is Alfred's mother's name. She apparently added Simpson as a middle name sometime after her marriage.
Researcher James Thompson sent my brother, J. H., the address of the above C. Simonds, suggesting that J.H. contact her. His letter was returned with the notation, "gone away." Step daughter Simmonds could not know family names; step father, Alfred, had them mixed up, as his mother's death record shows. Perhaps C. Simonds could have provided the name of a more knowledgeable family member.
FAMILY OF ROBERT GARDINER/MARGARET STEWART
20 Jun 1868 Robert Gardiner, son of James Gardiner, tinsmith, and Ann Gall married Margaret Stewart, daughter of Robert Stewart, farm laborer, and Elizabeth Stewart (dec) on board the "Emerald Isle," the day they sailed from Liverpool Harbor. They were married by Aurelius Minor. Robert's younger brother, Alfred, traveled with them to Utah (family history). A daily account of the trip was kept by Hans Jensen, from Hals, Denmark, who was in charge of the company (MSD 4718).
Passenger List from Emerald Isle (#183, p328, FHL298437)
Robt. Gardiner 22 confectioner Scotland
Marg't Stewart 17 "
Alfred Gardiner 7 "
Some of the relief they felt after a trying ocean journey is expressed in the following excerpts from Hans Jensen's journal.
11 Aug 1868 We could see land; in the morning early a steamer came and pulled us in. It made us feel good. We buried two dead in the ocean... We went by Sandy Hook and came to Long Island. The quarantine officer and the doctor came on board. Over 30 sick were taken inland on a steamer to a hospital. The first coxswain became angry and scolded the captain and was confined to quarters that day.
12 Aug 1868 The doctor came again...and looked after the people to see if they had anything contagious.
13 Aug 1868 Went to the bank with money for exchange and received $26,477.25 in Green backs and 1000 in gold. Later we raised anchor and a steamer pulled us into town.
14 Aug 1868 Went to Castle Street and received the company. They had their names registered there...went to station at the railroad and began to get clothes and did the accounting necessary for the journey over America.
15 Aug 1868 Continued our weighing and work. Buried one who had died in town. We had a very busy day. Used a railroad wagon as an office. In the evening the train departed with the Saints. Soderberg and I stayed behind and made clearances for journey.
17 Aug 1868 We went by train...it was beautiful to drive through New York state and see the mountains.
18 Aug 1868 We bought tickets there to Detroit. We passed the company on the way. ...went by pullman, had a good nights rest...went to Chicago and there worked...until they came with the company in the afternoon. I then went and got the Danes in the better cars as they had been in the worst most of the way. Smith was very angry because of this.
19 Aug 1868 Crossed the Mississippi on a very dangerous bridge.
20 Aug 1868 Crossed Iowa, arrived in Council Bluff in the evening. We camped under the open heavens.
21 Aug 1868 Brother Larsen came from Omaha and helped us over the Missouri River by steamship, and showed us the way to the station. Sister Kjaer died. We had great difficulty in getting the saints in the wagons as they were small land didn't have much room, several remained to come with the next train.
22 Aug 1868 We drove our wagons up the Platt River.
23 Aug 1868 Came over North Platt. Sister P. Hansen gave birth to a girl in the railcar. All went well considering the conditions.
24 Aug 1868 Went through Black Hills to Laramie City. Several of the Saints were very sick because of the cars and the driving.
25 Aug 1868 Met company of about 100 church wagons at Benton.
1 Sep 1868 Began journey into the plains by wagon.
14 Sep 1868 Came to Greenriver.
20 Sep 1868 Camped at the end of Echo Canyon.
21 Jul 1868 Went down the canyon and camped by Coalville East Village. (End of quotes from Brother Jensen's diary).
9 Aug 1869 Robert Gardiner and Margaret Stewart were endowed and sealed at the Endowment House in Salt Lake City (Endowment: Robert, FHL1262923; Margaret, FHL1263430; Sealing: #13762, FHL183396).
13 Oct 1869 Robert Stewart Gardiner was born to Robert Gardiner and Margaret Stewart at Salt Lake City.
1870 Census of 20th Ward, SLC, Salt Lake County; p32 of original record. (FHL533110)
Robert Gardiner age 25 confectioner born: Scotland, no wealth.
Margaret Gardiner age 20 keeping house born: Scotland.
Robert Gardiner age 1/2 at home born: Utah.
All three members of household have parents of foreign birth.
9 Mar 1871 Robert Stewart Gardiner died at 20th Ward, Salt Lake City, son of Robert Gardiner and Margaret Stewart. Cause of death: canker. Place of interment: City Cemetery, Plat H, Block 5, Lot 4, N 1/2 (#4628, p116, FHL026553).
31 Jan 1872 Margaret Amelia Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City, daughter of Robert Gardiner and Margaret Stewart.
1874 Gardiner Robt. candy maker, 20 wd. Garden cor. Cottonwood, ss (Salt Lake City Directory).
23 Apr 1874 Violette Ann Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City, daughter of Robert Gardiner and Margaret Stewart (Spelling of name from death record).
23 Aug 1876 William Francis Gardiner, son of Robert and Margaret, was born in SLC.
18 Oct 1878 Violette Ann Gardiner died at the 14th Ward, Salt Lake City; daughter of Robert and Margaret Gardiner, born 1874. Cause of death: diphtheria. Buried at the City Cemetery, Plat H, Block 5, Lot 4, N 1/2 (#8632, p216, FHL026553).
26 Mar 1879 Frederick Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City, son of Robert and Margaret Gardiner.
20 May 1881 Clarence LeRoy Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City, son of Robert and Margaret Gardiner.
5 May 1883 Eva Winifred Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City, daughter of Robert and Margaret Gardiner.
27 Nov 1885 Charles Stewart Gardiner was born at SLC, son of Robert and Margaret Gardiner.
1889 Gardiner Robert, candy-maker, factory rear of Teasdel's store; res over Jordan. (Salt Lake City Directory, 1889)
26 Jan 1889 Adelaine Maud Gardiner was born at Brighton [over Jordan].
(Spelling from death record.)
8 Mar 1890 Adelaine Maud Gardiner died, age one year. Daughter of Robert and Margaret Gardiner. Cause of death: convulsions. Buried at Plat H, Block 5, Lot 4, N 1/2, Salt Lake City Cemetery (#15860, p397, FHL026553).
12 Nov 1890 Margaret Amelia Gardiner married William Reames Gedge (#1685, FHL429056).
20 Apr 1891 Beatrice Lenore Gardiner was born, daughter of Robert and Margaret.
Abt 1894 Robert moved his family back into Salt Lake City (Clarence).
1896 Gardiner Robert, res 5 Aikens ct.
Gardiner Wm F, cond S L C R R Co, bds 5 Aikens ct. (SLC Directory)
1897 Gardiner Robert, confr, res 5 Aikens Ct. (SLC Directory)
4 Jun 1900 Census of SLC, Second Ward of City, 1st South Street. Rented home, 4 R
Margaret Gardiner, Head, Age 50, Md 31y. Mother of 10, 7 living. In U.S. 32y. Children at home:
William F. Gardiner, Son, Born Aug 1876, Age 23, Single; Conductor, R.R.
Months not employed:0
Charles, Son, Born Nov 1885, Age 14, Student, attended school 7 months.
Beatrice, Daughter, Born April 1891, Age 9, Student, attended school 7 months.
13 Jun 1900 Census of Summit county, Castle Rock.
Frederick Gardiner, boarder at John Wrathall ranch.
Occupation: sheepherder (1 of 16); Born 1877, Age 23. [born 1879, age 21]
Clarence Gardiner, boarder at John Wrathall's ranch.
Occupation: sheepherder; Born 1880, Age 20. [born 1881, age 19]
16 Apr 1903 William F. Gardiner married Mary Ellen Boylin (#12815, FHL429059).
9 Jun 1905 Clarence L. Gardiner, age 24, began his journey home from his mission to Scotland; sailing on the SS "Arabic." (#3067, p175, European Emigration Card Index, FHL298433).
20 Jun 1907 Clarence married Edna Jackson (#4402, FHL429067).
5 Sep 1907 Harold F. Gardiner, died, age 1 yr, 4 mos, 19 days; son of William F. Gardiner and Nellie Boylin. Cause of death: cholera (#13799, p364, FHL026554).
14 Nov 1907 William F. Gardiner died, age 31 yrs, 2 mos, 2 days; son of Robert and Margaret S. Gardiner (#18273, p368, FHL026554).
8 Sep 1909 Eva Gardiner married Harry W. Cushing (FHL429073).
10 Oct 1914 Charles S. Gardiner, age 28, returning from his mission to Scotland, sailed from Liverpool on the SS "Mauretania."
16 Jun 1915 Beatrice Gardiner married Morris D. Low (FHL429040; License #21845, S.L. County. Endowment: FHL186208. Sealing: FHL186209.)
4 Feb 1917 Margaret Stewart Gardiner, age 67 years, died at 4:15 p.m. at 43 Alameda Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah. Wife of Robert Gardiner, Daughter of Robert Stewart and Elizabeth Stewart. Cause of death: Lobar Pneumonia, 5 days. Contributory cause: Chronic Bronchial Asthma. Buried at SLC Cemetery, Plat H, Block 5, Lot 4, Grave 1, East Tier (Cert #M-233, FHL26563).
(Margaret's sister, Amelia, also died of pneumonia; her sister, Elizabeth, died of heart disease, John, the only brother of Margaret whose death record we have, and her sister, Jane, died of phthisis, which is pulmonary tuberculosis. Her mother's death was attributed to Laryngitis, 7 days. Margaret's mother's sister, Jane S. Crichton died of Old age and Bronchitis, 4 days.)
19 Jun 1918 Charles Gardiner married Althea Hubbard (#29976, FHL429099).
2 Jun 1920 Frederick Gardiner married Hope Hulet (Cert.)
5 Apr 1927 Robert Gardiner died at Salt Lake City, age 81, widower of Margaret Stewart, son of James Gardiner, tinsmith, and Ann Gall. Buried at SLC Cemetery, Plat H, Block 5, Lot 4, Grave 2, East Tier (Utah Death Record, p602, FHL26563).
The following article from the Deseret News was probably written by Clarence. Note error in birthplace.
Robert Gardiner, 1868 Pioneer, Dies
Robert Gardiner, Salt Lake confectioner and pioneer of 1868, died at a Salt Lake hospital Tuesday.
He was born at Inverness, Scotland, Oct. 24, 1845 and followed the trade of confectioner and baker in Dundee. On June 20 1868 he married Margaret Stewart on board the sailing vessel "Emerald Isle" and the same day sailed with his wife for America.
On arrival in Utah he worked on the Union Pacific railroad then building through Echo Canyon, and later engaged in the confectionery and baking business in Salt Lake for a number of years.
Surviving are the following children: Mrs. William R. [Margaret] Gedge, Salt Lake; Frederick Gardiner, Malta, Idaho; Bishop Clarence L. Gardiner, of Richards Ward, Salt Lake; Mrs. Harry [Eva] Cushing and Charles S. Gardiner, Salt Lake; Mrs. Morris D. [Beatrice] Low, Paris Idaho, and 21 grandchildren and 3 great-grandchildren. He also has a sister [Matilda] and a brother [Alfred] in Salt Lake.
Funeral services will be held in the Richards Ward chapel Thursday, April 7 at 12 o'clock noon. Friends may view the body at the residence of Bishop Gardiner 928 Hollywood Avenue, from 9:30 to 11:30 a.m. Thursday.
FAMILY OF MATILDA GARDINER/JOHN GUNN
(Where sources are not given the information came from the history booklet prepared by Louise Aiston Chamberlain, granddaughter of Matilda and John Gunn. She made a more complete book which is at the Family History Library.)
7 Jan 1843 John Gunn was born at Leathrean, Caithness, Scotland, the son of George Gunn and Ann Cook, who was born at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. (John's father's name is from John's marriage record. Louise recorded his father as John.)
25 Apr 1870 On the 25 day of April 1870 at Panmure Terrace, Dundee, after banns according to the forms of the Free Church, John Gunn, 24, Corporal, 93rd Highlanders, (bachelor), at Military Barracks, Son of George Gunn, soldier (dec) and Ann Gunn MS Cook (dec), married Matilda Gardiner, 21, power loom weaver, (spinster). Residence: 29 Rosebank Road, Dundee. Daughter of James Gardiner, tinsmith, and Ann Gardiner MS Gall. Witnesses: William Cowie, James Gardiner, who also witnessed Matilda's X mark. (#46, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL363143)
31 Jul 1871 James Gunn was born at 4 a.m. at 20 Park Street, Kinning Park, Govan Church, Lanark, Scotland; son of John Gunn, police constable, and Matilda Gunn MS Gardiner, married 25 Apr 1870 at Dundee. Signed: John Gunn, father (#819, Govan, Lanark, Scotland, FHL224509).
15 Dec 1872 Ann Gunn was born at 10:30 a.m. at Thomson's land, Church Street, Dumbarton, Dumbarton, Scotland. Daughter of John Gunn, ship caulker (journeyman), and Matilda Gunn MS Gardiner; married 24 Apr 1870 at Dundee; signed: John Gunn, father, present (#1, Dumbarton, Dumbarton; FHL300162, film for 1873 births, birth was registered in Jan 1873. Her name is Ann, not Anna as she was later called.)
4 Sep 1874 Matilda Gunn was born at 3 p.m. at 12 Springfield Road, Glasgow, daughter of John Gunn, ship caulker (journeyman), and Matilda Gunn MS Gardiner; married 25 Apr 1870; signed John Gunn, father (#2372, Bridgeton, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland; FHL329055).
1874 Directory of St Catherines, Ontario, Canada:
Alexander Gunn, clerk, 13 St Paul St
Frederick Gunn, tinsmith, 90 Lake St
1875 Directory of St Catherines, Canada:
Frederick G. Gunn, tinsmith, 90 Lake Ave
John Gunn, Moulder and butcher, Welland Ave ss
1877-1878 Directory of St Catherines, Canada:
Frederick G. Gunn of Wilmott & Gunn, 90 Lake Ave es
John Gunn, police constable, Albert ss
28 Jul 1878 Jane Gunn was born at St. Catherines, Lincoln, Ontario, Canada. Daughter of John Gunn, police constable, and Matilda Gardiner (42-16080-78, FHL1845217. Note correction of year, 1879 in Louise's history.)
1879 Directory of St Catherines:
Frederick G. Gunn, stove & tinware, 12 James h 100 Lake
John Gunn, Police constable, h Albert nr Catherine
13 Dec 1880 John Gunn was born at Chandos, Peterboro County, Province of Ontario, Canada. Son of John Gunn, boilermaker, and Matilda [Gardiner] Gunn. Informant: Matilda Gunn, Residence: Lots 1 & 2 Con 17 Chandos (#22653-81, FHL1845576. Registered in 1881. This son appears on the IGI, source: Church membership records.)
The following census has value but is not accurate in some respects. They may have attended the Church of England in Canada, but they were not from England. Under the column, "In School" there were checks after the names of the parents. John's age may have been 7/12, rather than 1/12.
1881 Census of Chandos, Peterborough, Province of Ontario, Canada (p31, line 24; & p32)
John Gunn Mar 37 England Church of England farmer
Matilda Gunn Mar 30 England " " "
James Gunn 10
Ann Gunn 8
Matilda Gunn 6
Jane Gunn 3
John Gunn 1/12
The following is all from Louise Aiston Chamberlain's booklet:
7 Jan 1882 Jane Gunn died, age 2 1/2, drowned in a ditch. (The age would be 3 1/2 if this death date is correct. I have not found this record on the Ontario death index. Louise did not name a death place in her history.)
May 1885 George Arthur Gunn was born at Minneapolis, Hennepin, Minnesota.
13 Jun 1887 Edward Gunn was born at 27th Ave South, Minneapolis, Hennepin, Minnesota.
18 Mar 1893 Robert Gunn was born at Muskegon, Michigan.
29 Apr 1893 Robert Gunn died, age 6 weeks.
23 Dec 1894 Ann Gunn married Ernest Aiston at Chicago, Illinois. They had six children.
Aug 1897 George Arthur Gunn died at Chicago, Illinois, from blood poisoning from a nail in his foot.
5 Apr 1915 John Gunn, husband of Matilda Gardiner, died at Salt Lake City.
14 Jun 1930 Matilda Gardiner Gunn died at Salt Lake City.
2 Nov 1947 Ann Gunn Aiston died at Bellingham, Washington.
5 Mar 1954 Matilda Gunn Aiston died at Bellingham, Washington. Married to Robert Aiston, brother of Ernest who married her sister, Ann. Matilda had no children, but took care of Ann's children after Ernest died in 1911.
FAMILY OF FREDERICK GARDINER/ELIZA JANE FISHER
12 Nov 1878 12 Rose Lane, St Clements, Dundee. Church of Scotland.
Frederick Gardiner, 27, bachelor, seaman, (M.S.); 6 Rose Lane, Dundee, Son of James Gardiner, Whitesmith*, and Ann Gardiner MS Gall,
Married Eliza Fisher, 24, Spinster, power loom weaver, 12 Rose Lane. Daughter of Charles Fisher, jute warehouseman, and Jane Fisher MS Kidney. Witnesses: David Gibson and Catherine Ferris (#165 St Clements, Dundee. Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
*Whitesmith: 1: one who works in tin or galvanized iron or white iron: TINSMITH 2: a worker in iron who finishes or polishes the work--sometimes distinguished from blacksmith (From Webster's Third New International Dictionary).
14 Sep 1879 Frederick Gardiner was born at 12 Rose Lane; son of Frederick Gardiner, seaman (merchant service), and Eliza Gardiner MS Fisher, married 12 Nov 1878, Dundee. Informant: Eliza Gardiner, mother (#724, 3rd Dist, Dundee, research by James Thompson, 8 Oct 1984).
19 Dec 1879 "Fredricks wife had a letter today and he is landed in Sheilds and will not be home at/or (?) after the new year as he is going a voige to the Baltic they ar all well at presant and young Fredrick is thriving buitiful." (Letter from James Gardiner, brassfinisher, to his brother, Alfred in Utah.)
4 Apr 1881 Census of 12 Rose Lane, St Clement, Dundee (ED16, FHL203483)
Jane Fisher Head Mar 50 Ireland
Eliza J. Gardiner Daur Mar 26 Dundee
Margaret Fisher Daur Um 24 Dundee
Mary Ann Fisher Daur Um 22 Dundee
Sarah Fisher Daur Um 17 Dundee
Frederick Gardiner G-son 1 Dundee
19 Sep 1882 Jane Ann Gardiner was born at 14 Rose Lane, St Clement, Dundee. Daughter of Frederick Gardiner, seaman, merchant service, and Eliza Gardiner MS Fisher; married 12 Nov 1878, Dundee. Informant: Eliza Gardiner, mother (#666, St Clement, Dundee; research by James Thompson).
James Thompson searched for births of other children born to this couple in Dundee in 1880, 1881, 1884, 1885, and 1886, and found no trace. He also checked to see if the daughter, Jane Gardiner, died during the years 1882-1891 and found no record of her death. This family is not at the Fisher home on Rose Lane in the 1891 Census.
Family history says that Frederick moved to Vancouver, British Columbia, but we have not yet found any record of him there. Arlene Dunne, Alfred's granddaughter, remembered visiting Frederick in Vancouver, and his visiting them in California.
FAMILY OF RALPH GARDINER AND ELIZABETH MASTERTON
24 Jan 1879 At 15 Barclay Street, Paisley, Scotland. United Presbyterian Church.
Ralph Gardiner, 24, Private 74th Regt, bachelor, Res: Lounsdale, Paisley, son of James Gardiner, tinsmith (journeyman), and Ann Gardiner MS Gall, married Elizabeth Masterton, 19, spinster, threadmill worker. Res: Lounsdale, Paisley, daughter of John Masterton and Janet Masterton MS Westwood. Witnesses: James Connely and Ellen McCann (Marriage Index FHL103554; #58 Paisley, from JT).
28 Jan 1881 Janet Gardiner was born at 11 a.m. at 404 Gairbraid St, Maryhill, Lanark, Scotland. Daughter of Ralph Gardiner, Soldier (Private 76th Highlanders) and Elizabeth gardiner MS Masterton. Married 1879 Jan 24th, Paisley. Informant: Elizabeth Gardiner, mother. Registered 15 Feb at Maryhill (#73 Maryhill, Lanark; FHL232667).
4 Apr 1881 Census of 404 Gairbraid Street, Maryhill, Lanark, 622-1/6/42; FHL203612
Elizabeth Gardner Head Md 20 Soldier's Wife Crombie Point, Fife
Janet Gardner Daur 2 1/2 [mos.] Maryhill
4 Apr 1881 Census of Maryhill Barracks, Maryhill, Lanark (622-1, ED18, p9, FHL203613)
Ralph Gardiner Md 29 Soldier Dundee
? 1882 John Gardiner born to Ralph and Elizabeth.
11 May 1883 Ralph Gardiner born to Ralph and Elizabeth.
10 Jun 1884 William Gardiner was born at Hope Street, Inverkeithing, the son of Ralph Gardiner, engineer (journeyman) and Elizabeth Gardiner MS Masterton. Married 19 Jan 1879, Paisley. Informant: Elizabeth Gardiner, mother (#55 Inverkeithing; from James Thompson, Edinburgh).
24 Sep 1885 Ann Gall Gardiner was born at Hope Street, Inverkeithing. Daughter of Ralph Gardiner, diver (Forth Bridge Works), and Betsy Gardiner MS Masterton. Married 29 Jan 1879, Paisley. Informant: Ralph Gardiner, father, present (#129, Inverkeithing; from James Thompson, Edinburgh).
April 1886 Ralph and Elizabeth arrived in America just two weeks prior to the death of Ralph's mother, Ann, at Minneapolis where Matilda also was living. Arlene Dunn said Ann died in Ralph's home.
About 1890 Anne Gall Gardiner, daughter of Ralph and Elizabeth, died at Terrace, Box Elder County, Utah.
16 Jun 1949 Ralph died in California.
FAMILY OF ALFRED GARDINER/SUSANNAH JAMES
3 Jun 1880 Alfred Gardiner, son of James Gardiner, tinsmith, and Ann Gall, married Susannah James, at Salt Lake City, Utah, at the Endowment House (FHL183408). Susannah was born 2 Jun 1862 at Swansea, Glamorgan, Wales; the daughter of Richard Saunders James and Margaret Morgan (IGI).
12 Jul 1881 Mable Susannah Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City, Utah. Daughter of Alfred Gardiner and Susannah James.
6 Oct 1883 Alfred Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City, Utah.
21 Oct 1885 Richard Arthur Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City, Utah, at 12:10 a.m.
6 Sep 1887 Alfred Gardiner, age 3 yrs, 11 mos, died at 21st Ward, Salt Lake City, son of Alfred and Susannah Gardiner. Cause: blood poisoning (#13998 pg 350; FHL026553; buried at Plat L, Block 9, Lot 5, SL City Cemetery).
1 Feb 1888 Margrett Ann Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City at 10:16 p.m.
1889 Gardiner Alfred, confectioner, res 725 Fifth (SLC Directory).
5 Jul 1890 Claribel Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City
29 Aug 1893 James Frederick was born at Salt Lake City at 2:40 p.m.
1896 Gardiner Alfred, conf mnfr 723 5th, res same (SLC Directory).
18 Sep 1896 Lester Raymond Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City at 1:20 p.m. Friday.
1900 Census of 723 5th Street; Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah (Soundex film, FHL1241684, Vol 5, ED 5, Sheet 5, Line 35)
Alfred Gardiner, Head, W.M. (white male), born Aug 1858, age 41y, Md 20y, born in Scotland, Parents born in Scotland. Came to U.S. in 1868; 31 yrs in U.S. Naturalized. Confectioner. Months not employed: 0. Owns home, free of mortgage.
Susannah Gardiner, wife, W.F (white female), b. June 1862, age 37, Md 20 yrs. born in Wales; parents b. Wales. Mother of 8; 6 living.
Mabel S. dau W.F. b. Jul 1881 age 18 single b. Utah
Richard son W.M. b. Oct 1885 age 14 single b. Utah
Margaret dau W.F. b. Feb 1888 age 12 b. Utah
Claribel dau W.F. b. Jul 1890 age 9 b. Utah
James F son W.M. b. Aug 1892 age 7 b. Utah
Lester R son W.M. b. Sep 1896 age 3 b. Utah
? Donald Gardiner was born at Salt Lake City.
2 Oct 1902 James Frederick Gardiner, son of Alfred and Susannah James Gardiner, died at 1:15. Age: 9 yrs, 1 mo, 3 days. Cause: scarlet fever (#12581, p190; FHL026554).
FAMILY OF ARTHUR GARDINER/ELIZABETH MASTERTON
The story of Arthur has been told by his granddaughter, Betty Gardiner Harris. She did a lot of work and provided much interesting information, but unfortunately, she was handicapped by the fabrications of her grandmother, stories designed to mislead, and to protect from embarrassment, a practice which has received attention in our day. She was further handicapped by poor researchers, and the rush to claim ancestors who fit the time frame but had no other evidence of a family connection.
1889 Betty Harris, granddaughter of Arthur, says that Arthur Gardiner married Elizabeth Masterton, "Ralph's ex-wife" in Salt Lake City on this date. This is unreasonable. Arthur applied for a patent for his design of a snow plow in 1890 when he was living at Terrace, Utah, a stop on the Southern Pacific Railroad in western Box Elder county. He was probably living with Ralph and Elizabeth, as he was later in Ogden.
1890 Arthur Gardiner II, the son of Arthur and Elizabeth, was born at Salt Lake City, according to Betty Harris.
1895-1896 Ogden City Directory: [If Arthur went to Australia in 1893 as Betty Harris claims, this Directory was certainly behind times in 1895-96. Arthur obviously lived with Ralph and Elizabeth in Ogden after they moved from Terrace.]
Gardiner Arthur, boilermaker S P Co, res 226 W 22d.
Gardiner John, appr S P Co, res 226 W 22d.
Gardiner Ralph, boilermaker S P Co, res 226 W 22d.
Arthur II is sometimes listed as the youngest child of Ralph, as he was born while Elizabeth and Arthur were still living with Ralph, but Elizabeth's obvious attempts to make it appear that Arthur II was Arthur's legitimate son, are quite convincing of the paternity, but not the legitimacy. Is that why he was named Arthur, and why she took him to Australia, because he really was Arthur's son?
27 Apr 1897 Stanley Gardiner born at Denmark, Australia, son of Arthur Gardiner and Elizabeth Masterton (Betty Gardiner Harris, Arthur's granddaughter).
20 May 1945 Arthur Gardiner I died at Midland, Australia (Betty Harris).
23 May 1875 Stanley Gardiner died at Midland, Australia.
FAMILY OF JOHN GARDINER/MARY ANN ALLAN
19 Nov 1836 John Gardiner, flaxdresser, [son of James Gardiner, soldier, labourer, yarn dresser, and Mary Butchart] married Mary Ann Allan, daughter of John Allan, cabinet maker. Married at Dundee (FHL993404).
1838 Mary, daughter of John and Mary Ann Allan Gardiner, was born at Dundee (See census below).
1840 John was born to above parents (see census below).
7 Jun 1841 Census of Dallfield Walk, Dundee (ED72, p9, FHL101801)
John Gardiner 25 flaxdresser in county
Mary Gardiner 20 not in county
Mary Gardiner 3 in county
John Gardiner 1 in county
1942 Thomas was born to John and Mary Ann Allan Gardiner. (See Census below)
31 Mar 1851 Census of 169 Meals Close, Dundee. (ED 31, p17, Sch 58, FHL103638)
John Gardiner Head Mar 32 flaxdresser Dundee
Margaret Gardiner Wife Mar 31 Aberdeen
Mary Gardiner Daur 13 millworker Dundee
John Gardiner Son 11 tobacconist Dundee
Thomas Gardiner Son 9 tobacconist Dundee
*(Wife's name was Mary Ann, not Margaret)
8 Apr 1861 Census of 14 Dallfield Walk, Dundee (ED18, p25, Sch179, FHL103788)
John Gardiner Lodger Un 21 Tin Smith Dundee, Forfarshire
9 Aug 1866 Mary Ann Gardiner, wife of John Gardiner, flaxdresser, died at New Inn Entry, Dundee, at 6:15 p.m. Age 50 years. Cause of death: phthisis pulmonalis, years. Daughter of John Allan, cabinet maker. Mother's name not recorded (#761, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL350894).
3 Apr 1871 Census of Mirtel(?) Lodging House, Overgate, St Marys, Dundee (ED9, p4 Sch12, FHL103941)
John Gardiner Lodger Wid 55 Flaxdresser Dundee
27 Apr 1891 John Gardiner, flaxdresser, age 73 years died at the poorhouse; widower of Mary Ann Allan. Son of James Gardiner, yarn dresser, and Mary Butchart.
(#372, St Andrew, Dundee; FHL256351)
FAMILY OF MARY GARDINER/JAMES STRACHAN
31 Dec 1856 Mary Gardiner, 20, Spinster, Millworker, Maxwelltown, daughter of John Gardiner, flaxdresser, and Mary Ann Allan, married James Strachan, 20, bachelor, weaver, Dallfield Walk, son of James Strachan and Isabella McDonald; married at Paradise Road, United Presbyterian Church. Witnesses: Robert Strachan, Mary Laing, and James Bennet. Witnesses to Mary's X: John Thompson, John Patullo (#14; 1st Dist Dundee, FHL280144).
30 Aug 1857 Robert Strachan was born at 5:00 a.m. at 12 Dallfield Walk, Dundee. Son of James Strachan, Labourer, and Mary Ann Gardiner. Signed: James Strachan, father, present. (#1156, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL280428)
24 Aug 1859 Johan Strachan was born at 8:20 a.m.at 15 Dallfield Walk, Dundee. Daughter of James Strachan, labourer at a foundry, and Mary Gardner. Signed James Strachan, father, not present (#1125, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL280554).
29 May 1861 Thomas Gardiner Strachan was born at 2:00 a.m. at Nicoll's Land, Dallfield Walk, Dundee. Son of James Strachan, foundry labourer, and Mary Gardiner. Signed: James Strachan, father, present (#791, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL224095).
1 Jul 1863 Alexander McGregor Strachan was born at 1:00 a.m. at 4 Dallfield Walk, Dundee. Son of James Strachan, foundry labourer, and Mary Gardiner. Md 31 Dec 1856 Signed: James Strachan, father, present (#1009, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL294806).
20 Dec 1864 Isabella McDonald Strachan was born at 7:00 p.m. at 4 Dallfield Walk, Dundee.
Daughter of James Strachan, foundry labourer, and Mary Gardiner, Md 31 Dec 1856.
Signed: James Strachan, father, present (#5, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL321265).
10 Oct 1866 Margaret Laird Strachan was born at 2:00 p.m. at 4 Dallfield Walk, Dundee.
Daughter of James Strachan, foundry labourer, and Mary Gardiner, Md 31 Dec 1856, Dundee. Signed: James Strachan, X, (#1735, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL332605).
23 Jun 1869 David Lindsay Strachan was born at 7:30 a.m. at ..., Dundee. son of James Strachan, Drover (master), and Mary Gardiner. signed: James Strachan, father.
(#526, St Clement, Dundee, FHL340317).
25 Apr 1871 Census of 8 Cross Row, St Peter, Dundee (ED7, p28, FHL103940)
James Stratton Head Md 33 firewood cutter Lochee
Mary Stratton Wife Md 33 Dundee
Robert Stratton Son 13 Dundee
Johan Stratton Dtr 11 Dundee
Thomas Stratton Son 9 Dundee
Margaret Stratton Dtr 4 Dundee
Mary Gardiner Cousin 15 Dundee
Jessie Gardiner Cousin 12 Dundee
(Mary and Jessie are the orphan daughters of David Gardiner and Jean Bruce. The spelling Strachan as Stratton required inspiration to solve the puzzle. Checking the births of children provided proof of identity.)
FAMILY OF JOHN GARDINER/MARGARET LAIRD
7 Jun 1841 Census of Forfar, Angus, Scotland (FHL101803)
Alexander Laird 45 Weaver Born in county
Margrit Laird 40 Born in county
John Laird 20 Weaver Born in county
Hellan Laird 15 Born in county
William Laird 14 Born in county
James Laird 11 Born in county
Alexander Laird 8 Born in county
Margrit Laird 6 Born in county
David Laird 3 Born in county
Marthew Laird 1 Born in county
(Alexander Laird and Margaret Gibson were married at Dundee 14 Aug 1815. The spelling may be that of a family member who filled out a form, or it may reflect the pronunciation of a family member who gave the information to the enumerator.)
26 Nov 1858 Jean Mitchell Laird, illegitimate daughter of Margaret Laird, linen hand loom weaver, was born at Carsebarrack, Forfar. Informant: mother, present (#352, Forfar, FHL280492).
31 Mar 1861 Census of 54 Nethergate, 2nd Dist, Dundee (ED4, pp1-2, Sch1, FHL991570)
Robert McNaughton Hotel Keeper
Margaret Laird servt Unm 23 Laundry Made Myrside, parish of Rescobie
20 Dec 1866 After banns according to the form of the Free Church, John Gardiner age 28, tinsmith, jour, bachelor, residing at Kings Court, son of John Gardiner and Mary Ann Allan (dec), married Margaret Laird, age 26, domestic servant, residing at Royal Hotel, daughter of Alexander Laird and Margaret Gibson. Witnesses: Thomas Adams, Betsy Anderson (#29, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL333287).
2 Nov 1867 John Alexander Gardiner was born at 7 Bell St, Dundee. Son of John Gardiner, tinsmith, jour, and Margaret Gardiner, MS Laird; married 20 Dec 1866, Dundee. Signed: John Gardiner, father, present (#2051, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL350954).
1 Apr 1869 Elizabeth Maggie Laing Horne Anderson Gardiner was born at 5:00 a.m. at 10 Bell St, Dundee. Daughter of John Gardiner, tinsmith, jour, and Margaret Gardiner, MS Laird; married 20 Dec 1866, Dundee. Signed: John Gardiner, father, present (#303 St Clement, Dundee; FHL340317).
1 Jan 1871 Winifred Louisa Gardiner was born at Dundee, daughter of John Gardiner, gasfitter, and Margaret Gardiner MS Laird (#48, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL224471).
19 Feb 1871 Elizabeth Maggie Laing Horne Anderson Gardiner, died age 2 at Paton's Lane Dundee. Daughter of John Gardiner, gas fitter (jour), and Margaret Laird. Cause: convulsions (#94 St Peter, Dundee FHL224597).
3 Apr 1871 Census of Step Row, Dundee, near Paton's Lane (ED 4, FHL103940)
John Gardiner Head Mar 31 tinsmith and gasfitter Dundee
Margaret Gardiner Wife Mar 31 Forfar
John A. Gardiner Son 3 Dundee
Winifred L. Gardiner Daur 3 mos. Dundee
Jane G. Clark Daur 12 Forfar
4 Sep 1872 Adelaide Annie Gardiner was born at 21 Paton's Lane, Dundee. Daughter of John Gardiner, gasfitter (journeyman), and Margaret Gardiner MS Laird; married 20 Dec 1866 at Dundee, (#591, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL300076).
4 Oct 1872 Winifred Louisa Gardiner died, age 21 months, at Paton's Lane, Dundee. Daughter of John Gardiner, gas fitter (jour), and Margaret Laird. Cause of death: Hydrocephalus (#438 St Peter, Dundee; FHL300310).
23 Jan 1875 Alice Maggie Gardiner was born at 6:30 p.m. Paton's Lane, Dundee. Daughter of John Gardiner, gasfitter (jour), and Margaret Laird, married 20 Dec 166, Dundee. Signed: John Gardiner, father (#113, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL384398).
18 Sep 1876 George Frederick William Gardiner born at 21 Paton's Lane, Dundee. Son of John Gardiner, gas fitter, jour, and Margaret Laird; Md 20 Dec 1866 (282-1/780, JT).
7 Sep 1877 George Frederick Gardiner died at 21's Paton Lane, Dundee, age 1 year. Son of John Gardiner and Margaret Laird. Tubercular Meningitis 4 days. Informant: father (#338, 1st Dist, Dundee; Research by James Thompson)
4 Apr 1881 Census of 38 Milnbank Road, Dundee, (ED20, p37, Sch 206, FHL203482)
John Gardiner Head Md 42 gas inspector Dundee
Margaret Gardiner Wife Md 42 Forfar
John Gardiner Son 13 scholar Dundee
Jennie Gardiner Daur 22 jute weaver Forfar
Adelaide Gardiner Daur 8 scholar Dundee
Alice Gardiner Daur 6 Dundee
Alexander Milne Boarder 27 Inverkeillor
5 Apr 1891 Census of 38 Milnbank Road, Dundee (ED20, Sch238, FHL208705)
John Gardiner Head Md 51 gas meter inspector Dundee
Margaret Gardiner Wife Md 51 Rescobie
Adelaide Gardiner Daur Unm 18 photographers assistant Dundee
Alice M. Gardiner Daur Unm 16 " " Dundee
20 Mar 1901 Adelaide Annie Gardiner, 28, spinster, photographers assistant, 38 Milnbank Road, Dundee. Daughter of John Gardiner, gas meter inspector, and Margaret Gardiner MS Laird, married David Clark, 30, bachelor, photographers operator, 4 Balfour Street, Dundee, son of William Clark, gatekeeper, and Margaret Clark MS Ogilvie (dec). Married at 9 Osborne Place, Dundee. Baptist Church. Witnesses: Alice Gardiner, Alexander Clark (#33, St Peter R.D., Dundee. Research by J.Thompson, Edinburgh).
2 Jul 1906 Alice Maggie Laird Gardiner*, 30, spinster, photographers printer, 38 Milnbank Road, Dundee. Daughter of John Gardiner, gas inspector, and Maggie Gardiner MS Laird, married Fred Strachan, 28, bachelor, jute merchants clerk, 9 Union Terrace, Dundee. Son of Alexander Ireland Strachan, gas treasurer (dec), and Catherine Webster Strachan MS Strachan. Married at 38 Milnbank Road, Dundee. Baptist Church. Witnesses: Edith R. Mitchell and Robert G. MacLean. (#166, St Mary R.D., Dundee. Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh.)
*(Alice Maggie must have added Laird to her name; it was not on the birth record. This is the only record where I have seen her mother called Maggie.)
6 Sep 1921 John Gardiner, gas meter inspector, died, age 81 years, senile decay, bronchitis. Married to Margaret Laird. Son of John Gardiner, hacklemaker (dec), and Mary Gardiner MS Allan (dec). Died at 38 Milnbank Road, Dundee. Informant: Fred Strachan, son-in-law, Ashlea, Wormit, Fife (#319, St Mary and St Peter R.D., Dundee. Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
19 Nov 1923 Margaret Gardiner, died, age 90 years; paralysis (hemiplegia). Widow of John Gardiner, gas meter inspector. Daughter of Alexander Laird, weaver (dec), and Margaret Laird MS Gibson (dec). Died at 38 Milnbank Road, Dundee. Informant: Adelaide Clark, daughter, present, 89 Elibank Road, Eltham, London S.E.9 (#358, St Mary and St Peter R.D. Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
In Balgay Cemetery at Dundee, monument #863 is inscribed: "Our parents John Gardiner 6 Sep 1921 Margaret Gardiner 19 Nov 1923" (FHL950391, item 7).
21 Nov 1947 Alice Margaret* Strachan, died age 69 yrs, chronic nephritis, myocardial degeneration. Married to Fred Strachan, jute salesman. Daughter of John Gardiner, gas meter inspector (dec), and Margaret Gardiner MS Laird (dec). Died at Royal Infirmary, Dundee. Usual Residence: 24 Noran Avenue. Informant: D S K MacLeay, son-in-law, 27 Greenfield Road, Springboig, Glasgow E2. (#919, St Clement R.D., Dundee. Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
*(Maggie, not Margaret, was her given name.)
13 Oct 1959 Adelaide Annie Clark, died 87 yrs, Auricular Fibrillation, Coronary Thrombosis, Widow of David Clark, photographer; daughter of John Gardiner, Gas fitter (dec), and Margaret Gardiner MS Laird (dec). Died at Maybank, Perth Road, Blairgowie, Co. Perth. Informant John Dow, friend, Castle Street, Blairgowie (#66, Blairgowie, Research by James Thompson, Edinburgh).
FAMILY OF THOMAS GARDINER/ELIZABETH OGILVIE
31 Mar 1851 Census of Arbroath at Hill Terrace, ED9, p2, FHL103635.
John Ogilvie Head Mar 47 Carter Carmyllie
Elizabeth Ogilvie Wife Mar 48 Montrose
Robert Ogilvie Son 19 Ship Carpenter Arbilot
Isabella Ogilvie Daur 18 Flax Mill Worker-Reeler Inverkeilor
Elizabeth Ogilvie Daur 13 Flax Mill Worker-Shifter Arbilot
Mary Ogilvie Daur 10 Washer Woman Arbilot
31 Dec 1862 Applegate, Arbroath. After banns according to the forms of the Methodist Wesleyan Church, Thomas Gardiner, flaxdresser, bachelor, age 21, 18 Guthrie Port, Arbroath, son of John Gardiner, flaxdresser and Mary Ann Gardiner MS Allan, married Elizabeth Ogilvie, factory worker, age 24, (spinster), Newgate, Arbroath, daughter of John Ogilvie, carter, and Elizabeth Ogilvie MS Davidson (dec).
Witnesses: John Gardiner, Jessie Ritchie (#7 Arbroath, FHL294915, marriage was registered in 1863).
15 Jul 1863 Thomas Gardiner was born at 1;15 p.m. at 60 Marketgate, Arbroath Parish. Son of Thomas Gardiner, flaxdresser, and Elizabeth Ogilvie, Md 31 Dec 1862 at Arbroath. Signed: Thomas Gardiner, father, present.(#378 Arbroath, FHL294805)
6 May 1865 Margaret Gardiner was born at 11:25 pm. at 60 Marketgate, Arbroath Parish. Daughter of Thomas Gardiner, flaxdresser, and Elizabeth Ogilvie, Md 31 Dec 1862 at Arbroath (#299 Arbroath, FHL321264).
4 Jun 1867 David Leitch Gardiner was born at 8:07 a.m. at 44 Cairnie Street, St Vigeans Parish. Son of Thomas Gardiner,flaxdresser, and Elizabeth Ogilvie, Md 31 Dec 1862 at Dundee. Signed: Thomas Gardiner, father, present (#350 Arbroath, FHL350593)
29 Dec 1869 William or Gilbert Gardiner was born at 7:30 a.m. at 44 Cairnie Street, St Vigeans Parish. Son of Thomas Gardiner, flaxdresser, and Elizabeth Gardiner MS Ogilvie, Md 31 Dec 1821 at Arbroath. Signed: Thomas Gardiner, father, present (#11 Arbroath, FHL352802).
The name on the birth record is William, in the index #11 is Gilbert Paterson Gardiner. A note in the margin of his birth record explains: "Change of Name. See Reg. Corr. Ent., Vol 1, p 187. 19th Jan 1870, 7th Apr 1871"
3 Apr 1871 Census of 48 Cairnie Street, Civil Parish of St Vigeans, Royal Burgh of Arbroath, (ED21, p5, Sch30, FHL103938)
Thomas Gardiner Head Mar 30 Flour Mill Overseer Forfar, Dundee
Elizabeth Gardiner Wife Mar 33 Forfar, Arbilot
Thomas Gardiner Son 7 Scholar Forfar, Arbroath
Margaret Gardiner Daur 5 Scholar Forfar, Arbroath
David Gardiner Son 3 Forfar, St Vigeans
Gilbert Patterson G. Son 1 Forfar, St Vigeans
On later records the birthplace of David and Gilbert is recorded as Arbroath, apparently referring to the city and not the parish. The city of Arbroath probably extended beyond the tiny parish of Arbroath into the parish of St Vigeans.
22 May 1872 Elisabeth Davidson Gardiner was born at 2:15 a.m. at Hope Street, Arbroath Parish. Daughter of Thomas Gardiner, flax mill overseer, and Elizabeth Ogilvie, married 31 Dec 1862, Arbroath. signed: Thomas Gardiner, father, present (#586 Arbroath, FHL 300074).
14 Apr 1874 Isabella White Gardiner was born at 5:00 p.m. at ... Street, Arbroath.
Daughter of Thomas Gardiner, flaxdresser, and Elizabeth Ogilvie, Md 31 Dec 1862, Arbroath. Signed: Thomas Gardiner, father (#223 Arbroath, FHL329023).
1878 Christina M. Gardiner was born at Arbroath (See Census below).
4 Apr 1881 Census of Arbroath, 272, (ED 6, p2, FHL203473)
Thomas Gardiner Head Mar 39 School Bag Manufacturer Dundee
Elizabeth Gardiner Wife Mar 43 Arbilot
Thomas Gardiner Son 17 Saddler Apprentice Arbroath
Margaret Gardiner Daur 15 Flax Mill Worker Arbroath
David Gardiner Son 13 Flaxdresser Arbroath
Gilbert Gardiner Son 11 Scholar Arbroath
Elizabeth Gardiner Daur 9 Scholar Arbroath
Isabella Gardiner Daur 7 Scholar Arbroath
Christina Gardiner Daur 3 Arbroath
1882 Thomas Gardiner, age 40, died at Arbroath (#208, Death Index for Scotland, FHL103424).
5 Apr 1891 Census of Arbroath, Angus, Scotland, (ED2, FHL208698)
Elizabeth O. Gardner Head Wid 53 Arbilot
Isabella W. Gardner Dau 16 Flax Spinner Arbroath
Christina M. Gardner Dau 14 Shop Assistant Arbroath
FAMILY OF DAVID GARDINER/JEAN BRUCE
28 Aug 1854 David Gardiner, flaxdresser, [son of James Gardiner and Mary Butchart], married Jean Bruce, daughter of Robert Bruce, labourer, [and Marjorie Brodie].
30 Nov 1855 Mary Gardiner was born at Park Lane, Dundee. Daughter of David Gardiner, flaxdresser, age 35 yrs, and Jean Bruce, age 35 yrs, 1st birth, married 1854, Dundee. Signed by father (#1271, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL833323, item 2).
15 Jun 1858 Jessie Ann Gardiner was born at 4:00 a.m. at 2 Hunter Street, Dundee. Daughter of David Gardiner, flax dresser, and Jean Gardiner MS Bruce. Informant: father, present (#744, 2nd Dist, Dundee, FHL280491).
27 Sep 1860 Joseph Fordyce Gardiner was born at 2:00 p.m. at Mill's Land, Hunter Street, Dundee. Son of David Gardiner, flaxdresser and Jean Gardiner MS Bruce. Signed by father, present (#1189, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL280618).
14 Feb 1862 Joseph Fordyce Gardiner, age 9 months, died at Lower Pleasance, Dundee. Son of David Gardiner, flaxdresser, and Jean Bruce. Cause: teething and bronchitis 4 weeks. Informant: father, present (#176, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL292868).
5 Mar 1864 David Gardiner, age 44 yrs, died at the Royal Infirmary. Usual residence: Shepherds Loan, Married to Jean Bruce. Son of James Gardiner, labourer (dec), and Mary Butchart (dec). Cause: Cancer and peritonitis. Informant: Peter Gardiner, nephew, Dallfield Walk (#1000, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL323661).
(The informant, Peter Gardiner is the son of Thomas Gardiner and Mary Nicol. Peter's wife, Mary Bruce, is the niece of Jean Bruce, wife of the above David. That may be his only claim to being a nephew, but Thomas could possibly be a son of James Gardiner and Mary Butchart. More research is needed.)
28 Mar 1871 Jean Gardiner, age 50 yrs, pauper, died at poorhouse, Dundee. Widow of David Gardiner, flaxdresser. Daughter of Robert Bruce, general labourer, (dec) and Marjorie Brodie (dec). Cause: general debility, 4 months (#219, St Andrew, Dundee; FHL224597).
25 Apr 1871 Mary and Jessie Gardiner, daughters of David and Jean Bruce Gardiner are listed as cousins with James and Mary Gardiner Strachan at 8 Cross Row. Mary Gardiner Strachan is their cousin, daughter of John Gardiner, flaxdresser, and Mary Ann Allan.
The following Thomas Gardiner may not be a part of our family. This is the family of the above Peter Gardiner who signed David's death certificate as nephew (see above).
FAMILY OF THOMAS GARDINER/MARY NICOLL
15 Aug 1833 Thomas Gardiner, flaxdresser, married Mary Nicoll (date from birth cert. of John Geekie Gardiner, 1862: #1292, 1st Dist, Dundee).
26 May 1834 Mary Stewart Gardiner was born at Lochee (993408).
15 Sep 1835 David Gardiner was born at Lochee (FHL993408).
24 May 1838 Thomas Gardiner was born at Lochee (FHL993408). He died before Feb 1847.
5 Apr 1840 Peter Gardiner was born at Lochee (FHL993408).
7 Jun 1841 Census at Liff, Patterson's Fues, Don's Land (FHL101805)
Thomas Gardiner 25 flaxdresser in county
Mary Gardiner 20 in county
Mary Gardiner 7 in county
David Gardiner 5 in county
Thomas Gardiner 3 in county
Peter Gardiner 1 in county
About 1840 there was a great falling away from the Church of Scotland. This included ministers as well as lay members. New non-conformist churches were organized. There are gaps in the records of this family because of these changes.
Mar 1842 William Gardiner was born at Lochee (Year, place: 1851 Census, Dundee; Month: 1900 Census, 7th Street, Oakland, California, Vol 3, ED 361, Line 9, Soundex).
13 Feb 1847 Thomas Gardiner was born at Lochee, baptized 7 Mar 1847 (FHL889477, non-conformist records)
23 Dec 1848 Jane Gardiner was born at Lochee, baptized 21 Jan 1849 (FHL889477).
1850 Elizabeth Gardiner was born at Lochee (See 1861 Census).
31 Mar 1851 Census of Liff, Burnside, Mathew's land,(ED104, FHL103642)
Thomas Gardiner Head 36 flaxdresser Dundee
Mary Gardiner Wife 35 Liff
Elizabeth Gardiner* Daur 17 Liff
David Gardiner Son 15 Liff
Peter Gardiner Son 11 Liff
William Gardiner Son 9 Liff
Thomas Gardiner Son 4 Liff
*(Elizabeth's was 1 year old, born Liff. Mary, the 17 year old was omitted.)
1852 James Gardiner was born at Dundee (Birth year calculated from census age).
4 Sep 1855 Margaret Davidson Gardiner, fe., born 4 Sep 1855 at Pole Park, Dundee. Father: Thomas Gardiner, merchant, age 41 years, born at Dundee. Parents were married 1833 at Lochee. 5 boys and 2 girls living, 3 boys and 1 girl dead. Mother: Mary Nicol, 12th birth; age 39 years; born at Liff. Signed by mother: X (#747, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL833323, item 2. The first Thomas died, two boys not known.)
19 Dec 1856 David Gardiner married Janet Gorrie (see page 47).
7 Nov 1857 Neil Steel Gardiner was born at 10 p.m. at Irelands Land, Scouringburn, Dundee. Son of Thomas Gardiner, tea dealer, and Mary Gardiner, Maiden Name, Nicoll. Signed: Thomas Gardiner, father, present (#1481, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL280429).
14 Oct 1859 Peter Gardiner married Mary Bruce (see page 45).
22 Oct 1859 Alexander Ruxton Gardiner was born at 12 noon at 17 Rose Street, Dundee. Son of Thomas Gardiner, travelling tea agent, and Mary Gardiner MS Nicoll. Signed: Thomas Gardiner, father, not present. Registered 5 Nov 1859 (#1444, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL280554).
29 Mar 1861 William Gardiner married Helen Smith (see page 47).
23 Apr 1861 Census of Rose Street. (ED17, p37, Sch203, FHL103788)
Thomas Gardiner Head Md 47 Grocer Forfarshire, Lochee
Mary Gardiner Wife Md 45 Forfarshire, Lochee
Mary Gardiner Daur Un 26 Steam Loom Weaver Forfarshire, Lochee
Thomas Gardiner Son 14 Scholar Forfarshire, Lochee
Elizabeth Gardiner Daur 11 Scholar Forfarshire, Lochee
James Gardiner Son 9 Scholar Forfarshire, Dundee
Margaret Gardiner Daur 5 Scholar Forfarshire, Dundee
Neil Steel Gardiner Son 3 Forfarshire, Dundee
Alexander Gardiner Son 1 Forfarshire, Dundee
15 Nov 1861 Mary Gardiner married George Jack (see page 44).
16 Sep 1862 John Geekie Gardiner was born at Rose Street, Dundee, son of Thomas Gardiner, pastry baker (jour), and Mary Nicoll; Md 15 Aug 1833 (282-1/1292, FHL292927).
13 Jun 1864 Alexander Ruxton Gardiner died, age 4 1/2 yrs, at Thompsons Land, Cherryfield Lane, Dundee, son of Thomas Gardiner, confectioner, and Mary Nicol. Cause: scarlatina nephritis 6 weeks. Signed: father. (#715, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL323661).
25 Apr 1871 Census of 188 Scouringburn, Dundee, ED20, p28, (FHL103941)
Thomas Gardiner Head Md 55 flaxdresser Dundee
Mary Gardiner Wife Md 54 Dundee
Betsy Gardiner Daur 18 Dundee Margaret Gardiner Daur 15 Dundee
Helen Gardiner Daur 13 Dundee John Gardiner Son 9 Dundee
Peter Gardiner Son [gr-son?] 6 Dundee
(Peter is probably their grandson, the orphan son of Peter Gardiner and Mary Bruce.)
The following are the various occupations and addresses of Thomas Gardiner.
Occupations Addresses Events
1841-1851 flaxdresser Lochee Census, births
4 Sep 1855 merchant Pole Park Margaret's birth
19 Dec 1856 labourer Scouringburn David's marriage
7 Nov 1857 tea dealer Scouringburn Neil's birth
14 Oct 1859 tea agent Rose Street Peter's marriage
29 Mar 1861 tea agent Rose Street William's marriage
23 Apr 1861 grocer Rose Street Census
15 Nov 1861 grocer Rose Street Mary's marriage
16 Sep 1862 pastry baker (jour) 17 Rose Street John G.'s birth
13 Jun 1864 confectioner Cherryfield Lane Alexander R.'s death
24 Apr 1866 flaxdresser Cherryfield Lane Peter's death
25 Apr 1871 flaxdresser 188 Scouringburn Census
FAMILY OF MARY GARDINER/GEORGE JACK
15 Nov 1861 At Constitution Terrace; Free Church of Scotland. George Jack, 21, cabinetmaker (jour), bachelor, Rose Street, son of David Jack and Janet Smith, married Mary Gardiner, 25, dressmaker, spinster, Rose Street, daughter of Thomas Gardiner, grocer, and Catherine Nicoll. Witnesses: James Jack, Jessie Jack.(#307, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL224166; Mother's name should be Mary, not Catherine)
14 Sep 1862 George Jack was born at 11 p.m. at 9 Joint Stock, Dundee; son of George Jack, cabinetmaker (jour), and Mary Jack MS Gardiner, married 15 Nov 1861. Signed by father (#1291, 1st dist, Dundee; FHL292927).
7 Dec 1864 Jessie Jack was born at Dundee, daughter of George Jack and Mary Gardiner.
5 May 1867 David Jack was born at Dundee.
FAMILY OF PETER GARDINER/MARY BRUCE
14 Oct 1859 Peter Nicol Gardiner, 20, Rose Street, mason, son of Thomas Gardiner, tea agent, and Mary Nicol, married Mary Bruce, 19, Temple Lane, daughter of Colin Bruce, confectioner, and Margaret Sangster. Witnesses: William F. Stewart, John Anderson (#267, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL280221).
8 Apr 1861 Census of Haws Land, Hilltown, Dundee (ED 17, p94, Sch 528, FHL103788)
Peter Gardiner Head 21 Mar Stone mason Lochee
Mary Gardiner Wife 21 Mar Lochee
8 Apr 1863 A male child, who died the same day, and was not named, was born at 9:00 a.m. at 96 Hilltown. Son of Peter Gardiner, mason, and Mary Bruce. Signed by father, not present (#508, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL294806).
26 Jul 1865 Peter Nicoll Gardiner was born at Barries Land, Dallfield Walk, son of Peter Gardiner, mason, jour, and Mary Gardiner MS Bruce. Signed by mother (#1341, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL321256).
2 Nov 1865 Mary Gardiner died, age 28, at 37 Dallfield Walk, Dundee, wife of Peter Gardiner, mason; daughter of Colin Bruce, confectioner, and Margaret Gardiner MS Sangster. Cause: phthisis pulmonalis, 12 months. Informant: Peter Gardiner, husband (#1133, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL330117).
24 Apr 1866 Peter Gardiner, mason, age 25 yrs, died at Browns land, Cherryfield Lane. Widower of Mary Bruce, son of Thomas Gardiner, flaxdresser, and Mary Nicoll. Cause: Apoplexy. Informant: Thomas Gardiner, present (#519, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL350894).
FAMILY OF DAVID GARDINER/JANET GORRIE
19 Dec 1856 David Gardiner, 21, Scouringburn, Dundee; bachelor, baker, son of Thomas Gardiner, labourer, and Mary Nicolson, married Janet Gorrie, 21, 10 Lower Pleasance; daughter of John Gorrie, mason, and Mary Buist.
(David's mother's maiden name may cause some to doubt that he belongs to this family, but I believe it is a clerk's error. I have not seen a Thomas Gardiner married to a Mary Nicolson on the Dundee census. David's age and place of birth match those of the David born to Thomas Gardiner and Mary Nicol.)
19 Mar 1857 Jessie Gardiner was born at 10 p.m. at 12 Scouringburn, Dundee. Daughter of David Gardiner, journeyman baker, and Janet Gardiner, Maiden Name, Gorrie. Signed: Janet Gardiner, her X mark, mother.
6 Sep 1858 Mary Gardiner was born at 4:30 p.m. at Meekenson's Land, Dudhope Street, Dundee. Daughter of David Gardiner, baker (Journeyman), and Janet Gorrie.
Signed: David Gardiner, father, not present (#1253, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL280491).
25 Jun 1860 Agnes Gardiner was born at Meekinsons Land, Dudhope Street, Dundee; daughter of David Gardiner, baker, and Janet Gardiner MS Gorrie. Signed by father, present (#817, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL280618).
24 Oct 1860 Mary Gardiner died, age 2 yrs 1 mo, at Meekinsons land, Dudhope Crescent, daughter of David Gardiner, baker (jour), and Janet Gorrie. Cause: Rubeola convulsions. Signed: David Gardiner, father, not present (#998, 1st Dist, Dundee, FHL292812).
20 Jan 1861 Agnes Gardiner died, age 9 months, at Michison's Court, Dudhope Wynd, Dundee, daughter of David Gardiner, baker, and Janet Gorrie. Cause: smallpox 14 days, as certified by John R. Begg, Surgeon. Informant: father, present (#80, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL224409).
8 Apr 1861 Census of Dudhope Wynd, Dundee (ED17, p140, FHL103788)
David Gardiner Head Md 25 baker (jour) Liff and Benvie
Janet Gardiner Wife Md 25 Liff and Benvie
Janet Gardiner Daur 4 Dundee
20 Jan 1862 Ann Gardiner was born at Midstreet, Chapelshade, Dundee; daughter of David Gardiner, baker (jour), and Janet Gorrie (#154, 1st Dist, Dundee
2 Dec 1863 David Gardiner was born at 7:20 a.m. at 41 Bucklemaker Wynd, Dundee.
Son of David Gardiner, baker, master, and Janet Gorrie, married 19 Nov 1856, Dundee. David Gardiner, father, present, (#1834, 1st Dist, Dundee, Fhl294806).
1 Sep 1865 Agnes Gardiner was born at Dingwall's Land, Bucklemakers Wynd, Dundee, daughter of David Gardiner, baker, master, and Jessie Gardiner MS Gorrie; married 19 Dec 1856. Signed by mother, X (#1555, 1st Dist, Dundee.
6 Dec 1867 Mary Gardiner was born at 18 Nethergate, Dundee; daughter of David Gardiner, baker (jour), and Janet Gardiner MS Gorrie; married 15 Dec 1856. Signed: David Gardiner, father, present (#1840, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL350955).
12 Mar 1870 Betsy Gardiner was born at 12:30 a.m. at 1 Key's Close, Nethergate, Dundee.
Daughter of David Gardiner, baker, (journeyman) and Janet Gorrie, Md 19 Dec 1856, Dundee. Signed: Janet Gardiner, X her mark, Mother.
1 Feb 1871 Janet Gorrie Gardiner, age 34, died at 31 Crescent Lane, Dundee; married to David Gardiner, baker (jour). Daughter of John Gorrie, stone mason (jour), and Mary Gorrie MS Bisset (dec). Cause: typhus (#91, 4th Dist, Dundee; FHL224597).
3 Apr 1871 Census of 31 Crescent Lane, ED23, Sch 128, p25, (FHL103943)
David Gardiner Hd Wid 34 Baker Foreman Dundee
Jessie Gardiner Daur 14 Millworker Dundee
Ann Gardiner Daur 9 Scholar Dundee
David Gardiner Son 7 Scholar Dundee
Agnes Gardiner Daur 5 Dundee
Mary Gardiner Daur 3 Dundee
Betsy Gardiner Daur 1 Dundee
FAMILY OF WILLIAM GARDINER/HELEN SMITH
29 Mar 1861 William Gardiner, 20, confectioner, Rose St., Forebank, Dundee. Son of Thomas Gardiner, tea agent, and Mary Nicoll, married Helen Smith, 18, dressmaker, daughter of William Smith, coal merchant, and Helen Low (282-1/89; FHL 224166).
3 May 1861 Elizabeth Low Gardiner was born at 2:03 p.m. at 84 Scouringburn, Dundee. Daughter of William Gardiner, confectioner (jour), and Helen Gardiner, MS Smith; married 29 Mar 1861, Dundee. Signed: William Gardiner, father, present (#597, 2nd Dist, Dundee).
12 Jan 1863 William Gardiner was born at 9:00 a.m. at Constitution Road, Dundee; Son of William Gardiner, confectioner, master, and Helen Smith; married 29 Mar 1861, Dundee (#94, 1st Dist, Dundee; FHL294806).
8 Oct 1864 Helen Gardiner was born at 54 West Port, Dundee; Daughter of William Gardiner, confectioner, master, and Helen Low Smith, married 19 Mar 1861, Dundee (#1461, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL321197).
13 Jul 1866 (Fe) Gardiner was born at Dundee.
13 Jun 1867 Alfred Allan Gardiner was born at 181 Overgate, Dundee; Son of William Gardiner, confectioner, master, and Helen Low Smith, married 18 Mar 1861 (#998, 2nd Dist, Dundee; FHL350995).
3 Nov 1879 Edwin Gardiner was born at 84 Queens Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Son of William Gardiner, confectioner, and Ellen Smith. Signed: Wm. Gardiner (#039226, FHL1845224).
1883/84 Florence was born in Canada. (1900 census California)
1900 Census of 7th Street, Oakland, California, Vol 3, ED 361, Line 9, (Soundex, FHL124271).
William Gardiner 59 born Mar 1841 Scotland
Helen Gardiner 56 born Sep 1843 Scotland
Edwin Gardiner 20 Canada (Eng)
Florence Gardiner 17 Canada (Eng)
The parents' ages agree with those they gave in 1861 on their 29 Mar marriage record: William, 20; Helen, 18, but William is not on the 1861 census, and is 9 on the 1871 census. I believe he was born in 1842.
The following Will Gardiner, on the same film, may be their son, William, who was born 12 Jan 1863 at Dundee, Scotland.
Will Gardiner 38 born 1864 Scotland
Jenny Gardiner 29 Canada (Eng)
I think it was Uncle Clarence who told me about a Gardiner family from Scotland who visited the Gardiners in Utah, then went to California. When I didn't find any of Thomas Gardiner's family on the 1881 census index for Scotland, I checked the 1900 census for California. I found a William and Helen Gardiner in Oakland, California, born in Scotland, the right names and ages to be the son and daughter-in-law of Thomas and Mary. There were two children, Edwin and Florence, born in Canada. While searching the birth index for Gunns in Ontario, I saw the names Edwin and Florence Gardiner, and was able to find Edwin's birth record. His father's occupation and his mother's maiden name convinced me that William is the son of Thomas Gardiner and Mary Nicoll.
A David Gardiner, the right age to be the son of Thomas and Mary, was in the insane asylum in California in 1900, but we need more than age to prove his identity.
It seems certain that Mary Butchart is the mother of James Gardiner, tinsmith, but we may still find some connection to the Annie Morgan, that Aunt Eva mentioned in her notes. There was a Morgan Hospital in Dundee, a school for boys.
"...provided for in the disputed testamentary writings of John Morgan
a native of Dundee who had made his fortune in India. ...judgement was given in favor of the town in the House of Lords on May 11, 1858." "...opened 5 February 1868." "...for the education, lodging, boarding and clothing of 100 boys."
Perhaps there is a connection to this family more generations back. We need to learn more about this John Morgan and find his will. Researcher, James Thompson, thought the above dates too recent to indicate an ancestor of James Gardiner, tinsmith, born 1808, but Annie need not be a descendant of John, just a member of the family that built "Morgan Hospital." She could be John's sister, cousin or niece, or aunt, and be older than John. Without the death age of John Morgan and the years it took to settle the dispute over the will we can't dismiss the possibility of there being a connection with this family.
SOME BIG IFS
I have looked for a daughter, Mary, named after her mother, Mary Butchart. One possibility, IF James Gardiner, soldier, was stationed in London during his years as a soldier, is the Mary Gardiner, who married John McLean 21 Aug 1837, in Dundee. She is the daughter of a James Gardiner, and was born at Westminster. She died 21 Jan 1854, age 40. The 1851 census shows
three sons: John, 12; James, 10; and Donald, 7.
There was another family of Gardiner flaxdressers in Dundee. Another David Gardiner, flaxdresser, is found on the 1841 Census of Scouringburn, Dundee. I wondered at first if James' and Mary's son lived on Scouringburn, but was also listed by his parents on Dallfield Walk. The
Davids were the same age, both born in county. On the 1871 Census I found the other David Gardiner, flaxdresser, age 54, unmarried, listed as brother-in-law to Helen Miln, widow of Charles Gardiner, flaxdresser, son of William Gardiner, weaver, and Catherine Young. William was listed as a "Volunteer" on his marriage record, 19 Dec 1808, Dundee. (FHL102612) The first birth record of his children born in Dundee is that of Peter Mitchell Gardiner, 21 Dec 1823, (FHL993402) who is the right age to be the Peter Gardiner, flaxdresser, who married Ann McDonald in 1850 (FHL993404) and had three sons, Peter, Edward and David.
David was born in 1855; 3rd birth, 2 boys living (FHL103258). No record of the first two births have been found. Edward was age 18 in 1871 (Census, ED9, p16, FHL103941). Edward died at Montrose, age 20; Informant: Peter Gardiner, brother FHL340258).
William Gardiner and Catherine Young named a daughter Mary Martin Gardiner.
Douglas Gardiner married a Mary Martin 28 Nov 1808. (Douglas died before 1851 so we cannot check his death record for parents; Mary Martin, widow, and daughter, Helen Gardiner are on 1851 Census FHL103639, ED 71, pg 14).
James Gardiner, weaver, and Barbara Robertson had a son, Douglas, christened 23 Jul 1786. At 22 in 1808, he may be the husband of Mary Martin. Douglas' younger brother, William, 19 in 1808, could be the "volunteer" who married Catherine Young. The oldest brother in this family is James Gardiner, born 8 Nov 1778, the right age to be the husband of Mary Butchart, but we have no proof of my great-great-grandfather's parentage.
The brothers, Charles and David Gardiner, flaxdressers, (and Peter Gardiner, flaxdresser, IF he is their brother), may be a cousins to John and David Gardiner, flaxdressers, and James Gardiner, tinsmith (and Thomas Gardiner, flaxdresser IF he is their brother). These clues are very iffy, and need proving before we can claim any relationship.
In Uncle Clarence's family history he says James Gardiner was a cooper. Records show that he was a tinsmith. Does that mean that there was another family member who was a cooper? Where did Clarence get the idea? Margaret Stewart Gardiner's uncle, John Stewart, was cooper when he married, but he soon changed his vocation to grocer.
There was a Peter Gardiner, cooper, whose family lived on Dallfield Walk in 1851, the street where James, Mary and David lived in 1841. Peter's grandson, Peter Gardiner, brassfounder, lived on Arthur Street, the same general neighborhood, in 1881. This Peter named one of his sons Alfred. That doesn't prove a thing, but the neighborhood, his vocation and that family name are interesting.
Many of the errors in family history have found their way into the IGI and Ancestral File. It is sad that Margaret S. Gardiner did not keep a record of her temple work. It contains the clues to the identity of her grandparents. If our family historians had been able to search the church, census, and civil records now available, they could have cleared up many errors in their Gardiner Histories. The occupation of Robert Gardiner's father is clearly tinsmith on church and census records. Birthplaces are recorded in these same records. Jane Gardiner's husband, William Stewart, was a private in the 93rd Highlanders in India. Jane and two of her children died and were buried in India. Jane was not buried at sea as written by Louise Aiston Chamberlain. Margaret Stewart Gardiner's oldest brother, John, died as a tailor in Glasgow, not London. He and his sister Jean died of tuberculosis (Phthisis).
These departures from fact shed doubt on many other stories. Did the Queen's bakery have anything to do with royalty or did Robert work for James Queen, a baker in Dundee? Did Elizabeth Stewart have a leg amputated or was it her sister-in-law, Isabel Stewart Fairley, who died of typhus fever, making her a more likely candidate for that procedure? Did Margaret Stewart have a younger sister, Mary, who died very young or was it her mother's sister, Mary who died young? Stories heard in the past, and recorded much later have a good chance for error, but the clues are there for research.