Sunday, December 20, 2015
Perthshire and Athol, Scotland Family History of William Stewart of Clochfoldich and Elizabeth Erskine of Derculich: Elizabeth 1808, Jean 1809 and Mary 1813 Margaret Stewart Gardiner to Utah, Salt Lake City. and Margaret Livingstone of Brae of Tullipourie: Janet 1814; Margaret 1818; and John 1822 All emigrated to Australia on Ann Milne from Dundee, Scotland. Description: Cloick39 (1) Description: EdradynateAreaMap The Stewarts from Clochfoldich, Perthshire, Scotland Janet (Jessie), Margaret and her husband John Connolly and John Stewart departed Dundee in Scotland to emigrate to Australia on the sailing boat ‘Anne Milne’, in September 1841 and landed in Sydney cove on 17th January 1842. Margaret Stewart must have married shortly before the voyage as she was living with her father William and infant niece Elisabeth in the 1841 census. John Connolly was a wheelwright, from Kings County (Offaly) in Ireland. William Stewart was listed as a parent as a parent and Margaret Livingstone, mother of the ‘Anne Milne’ trio, was listed as a deceased parent on the ship records. Unknown to the Australian family at the time, their step-sister Elisabeth and husband Robert Stewart and family members may have watched their boat depart Scotland’s shoreline. The Stewarts lived in a picturesque area of the Scottish Highlands between the Rivers Tay and Tummell near Strathtay. On the high banks of the Tay, Little Clochfoldich is named as the birthplace of our Stewart family and later records show that William Steuart, their father was also born on Clochfoldich estate in 1777 at Little Clochfoldich, to parents James Steuart and Margaret Fergusson. In 1814 an extensive census of Stewarts of the Athol area revealed that William Stewart and his three daughters, his father, James Stewart with two sons and four daughters, and William’s sister Isobell lived at Little Clochfoldich. One of the grandchildren of William Stewart, John Stewart was also born there in 1836. The heiress of the estate of Clochfoldich since 1833, Janet (Jessie) Wilhemina Maxwell Stewart married William Bowie Campbell in Logierait on 5/4/1838 and later the estate was sold to the Robertson family . At some point in the late 1830’s William Stewart, a widower, moved to Scone, Perthshire and was still working as a shoemaker in the 1841 census. Historical Backdrop of Athol Stewarts The history of the Clochfoldich Estate is that it was one of four estates procured by Robert Stewart, Minister of Killin for his 4 sons. Clochfoldich is the original Seat of Alexander Stewart, Esquire of Clochfoldich, grandfather of Janet (Jessie) Wilhemina Stewart who was the last owner. The other 3 are the Seats of Killiechassie, Blackhill, and Derculich (refer to the stars on the map above). The Minister of Killin was commonly called Curan an tsaghail, of the House of Cluny and Atholl. His funding for the acquisition of these properties is hotly contested on public record with the Catholic church archives. Whilst our Stewarts listed their religion as Roman. Catholics in the Ann Milne ship records, it is unknown if they had any association with these land-holding Stewarts of Clochfoldich. Since the 1745 Battle of Culloden massacre, the Catholic religion was not openly practised in Perthshire until the 19th century when there was a influx of Irish immigrants. It may have been an act of defiance that the Stewarts listed their religion as Catholics on the ship’s records as they never practised Catholism in Australia. The Catholic Stewarts were in danger of being murdered after Culloden for supporting Bonnie Prince Charlie’s bid for a return to the throne. Many of the Stewarts on Derculich estate were killed at Culloden. The main estate house of Clochfoldich, pictured on the title page, was firstly the hereditary estate of Alexander Stewart 1st of Clochfoldich and Margaret Stewart of the Urrard Stewart family and secondly of their son, Robert 2nd of Clochfoldich and Susan Fleming from Dull, and thirdly Alexander Stewart 3rd of Clochfoldich and Wilhemina Maxwell. Their daughter Janet Wilhemina Stewart became the heiress of the estate. Robert and Susan Stewart had a son James but he was born on 1/12/1762 which made him too young to be the father of our William Stewart b. 1777. There was certainly no immediate connection to the Minister of Killin, b. 1650, but there is a remote possibility that our ‘Steuarts’ living on one of his estates and also having a trades as a shoemaker and son, a carpenter were supported in some way as trades were very expensive in that era as mostly children grew up to be agricultural labourers or factory workers. The Minister of Killin was the fifth son and 8th of 9 children born to James Stewart, 1st of Wester Cluny which put him well out of contention of an inherited estate which was the birthright of his eldest brother Alexander 2nd of Wester Cluny. Robert’s other elder brothers John b. 1643, James, b. 1647 and William, b. 1648 do not appear to have any estates. The Royal connection with the Minister of Killin’s family is through the King Robert II’s brother Alexander, the Wolf of Badendoch or Earl of Buchan. The Minister of Killin was the son of James 1st of Wester Cluny was the son of Alexander 5th of Bonskeid who was the son of John Stewart 4th of Bonskeid who was the son of James Stewart 3rd of Bonskeid who was the son of Alexander Stewart 1st of Bonskeid, who was the son of John Gorm Stewart of Fortingall, who was the son of James Stewart of Fortingall and Garth, who was the second son of Alexander Stewart b. 1343, the Wolf of Badenoch and 1st Earl of Buchan. The ruins of the Castle of Garth are near Killichasie upstream on the Tay River from Clochfoldich. Also at Killichasie there is a tree under which it is reported that Bonnie Prince Charlie spent the night. Also at the entrance to Killichasie there is a famous tree, a sycamore which is known to be the first to bud in the United Kingdom, even before the Cornwall sycamores which is highly unusual and quite magical. This clan of Atholl Stewarts was distinct from the Appin Stewarts who also had highland Royal connections to the English Stuarts and were related to John of Bonkyll, the grand uncle of King Robert 2, and brother of his grandfather, James Stewart. There is more than a rumour in our family history that our Stewarts are Appin Stewarts but there does not appear to be any proof for this in the history given by family members in the 1817 census as they associated as being ‘old Athol family’ of Stewarts. The only substantiation for this would be related to the Earl of Athol, son of Black Lord of Lorn, James Stewart, who married King Robert’s widow Jean Beaufort, and was the son of John of Bonkyll. A great historian, writer and journalist James Irvine Robertson was asked by a member of our Stewart family the question of the ‘old Atholl’ roots and he replied ‘that it is possible these Stewarts relate from the Earl of Athol but regardless of that connection, any Stewarts living in Perthshire are related as younger sons of younger sons of the Wolf of Badendoch descendants’. The whole River Tay area has evidence of ancient Kings as not far away, downsteam of the Tay, is the mythical setting of Macbeth. There is one remaining old oak at Dunkeld which is supposed to be the last of the forest of Birnam Woods. Banquo was supposedly a Stewart whose descendants ascended the throne. Tracing the Scottish history of the Stewarts was simplified by the discovery of a Stewart census of 1817 published on the internet: List of Stewarts of Atholl and their descendants collected by David Stewart of Garth in 1817. This list aimed to identify the ancestral branch of each Stewart household and covered the area of our Stewarts. In Clochfoldich, William, James and Isabell Stewart were identified as being from an Old Athol family. Isabell Stewart is possibly the sister of William Stewart and another possibility to be explored is that James Stewart is William’s father. Two further Stewart households in 1817 in Clochfoldich were John Stewart of the Bonkseid family and Elizabeth & Jean Stewart of the Foss House Family of Stewarts. I don’t think these were ‘our’ Elizabeth and Jean as they would have been counted in with William’s entry. It was quite usual in those times to have a daughter or son working in a relative’s home as a servant so there is often a variety of different family groups under the one roof. In the census, the children were not recorded except for the number of sons and daughters of each household. William’s household record for Clochfoldich listed 3 daughters. James household record listed 2 sons and 4 daughters with a notation about one son and daughter which could mean that they are married or have left the area. Original parish records reveal that William Stewart, father of John Stewart of Bald Hills married at least twice. But firstly to identify William Stewart, shoemaker of Clochfoldich, Scotland’s people – parish records were consulted. From the census of 1841 in Scone where William had moved, his age was rounded to 60 which means his birth year was approximately 1780. There were two choices: 1. William born 23 July, 1780 to James Stewart and Margaret Walker in Balenoune, Clochfoldich, or 2. William b. 20 July 1777 and baptised 22/7/1777 to James Steuart and Margaret Fergusson in Wester Clochfoldich. Or 3. William b. 22/3/1778 to Donald Stewart and Janet Scott - family tree of Gray After, a visit to Clochfoldich and Little Clochfoldich which is also known as Upper Clochfoldich, it is apparent that Balinduin or Balendune is not the same place but another house on the Clochfoldich estate. This rules out William No. 1 as other parish marriage records definitely describe William as living at Little Clochfoldich. Also William and Margaret Fergusson married at Blair Atholl which also associates them as an old Athol family rather than at Derculich and Logierait where William and Margaret Walker married. The William No. 3 option to Donald and Janet Scott in Glenalbert, Logierait. I cannot find Glenalbert and while the year is about right, no-one in the family has been called Donald. I think that it is unlikely this is our William. Janet Stewart Gray’s second son was called William James which more fits with the James father of William pattern. Also John’s first born was a James. I hope this is not factual material given by Janet because it certainly doesn’t fit in with anything about Clochfoldich and William’s marriage details about living at Little Clochfoldich. The best fit with all the information is William No. 2 born in 1777 to James Steuart and Margaret Fergusson. Rev James Stewart said in his eulogy that his father was born in Strathtay. The marriage in Blair Athol is: James Steuart of Wester Clochfoldich, Logierait Parish and Margaret Ferguson of Kincraigie married on 26/8/1776. Other recorded siblings, consistent with living at Wester Clochfoldich are: William Steuart b. 20/7/1777 (our ancestor) Isobel Steuart bap. 26/4/1779 Grizel Steuart bap. 31/5/1781 John Steuart bap. 8/2/1784 No research has been undertaken to know if the following are siblings or parents of James Stewart: Robert Stewart of Killychassie Donald of Drumcharie Ann of Killichragie Extract from 1817 census by David Stewart of Garth: There is a Donald Stewart of the Old Athol family at Dumfallandy, not too far away from Clochfoldich but there does not appear to be any family associated with him. Another possibility is that the father was an Alexander but one of the younger sons of John and Jean Stewart was named Alexander after Alexander Caldwell (the minister at the Bald Hills Presbyterian church). Also John Stewart’s sister Janet and Thomas Gray had a son Alexander but he was the 6th of 7 children. The parish of Logierait is the nearest registration for Births, Marriages and Deaths in this district. There are quite a few buildings in Upper Clochfoldich, Clochfoldich and the Laigh of Clochfoldich, Cloch Cottage and Red Gate Cottage. When Jessie or Jane Stewart, daughter of John Stewart married Samuel Latham, their farm at Murgon was named Red Gate. Whether there was a family connection with Red Gate cottage/farm at Clochfoldich is unknown. It is possible this is Cloch Cottage where a John Stewart lived that possibly apprenticed John Stewart as he was a Wright (refer to 1841 census below). I think all of this family information about Clochfoldich does mean that William was actually born there at Little Clochfoldich. Robert Stewart, husband of William’s daughter Elizabeth b. 1811 identifies Robert’s birthplace at EdraDynate so he could be family of the owner of this estate. Still in the search for William’s ancesters a search from Scotland’s people from 1770 until 1820 for Ste?art births of James Ste?art and Margaret revealed: Possible births of Margaret Fergusson who lived at Kincraigie near Blair Atholl at the time of her marriage are: Or if she was from Logierait Out of these three choices, the Logierait one as she stated she was from Kincraigie at her marriage and the 1751 Margaret would be 25 at marriage which is more likely. Kincraigie can be found on right hand lower corner of the map on page 1. James has the possibility of being the son of John Steuart and Ann McLagen of Easter Auchnagie bap. 13/1/1755. This is to the east of Kincraigie. He would be 21 at the marriage and his wife would be older in any cases above. Another child born to this couple spelt their name Steuart as well. James was a later child of this couple. Really we are into speculation here so it is not worth pursuing this back any further. 1841 Censuses Analysis of 1841 Censuses In the 1841 censuses of Clochfoldich, Killichasie, Scone, Kinclaven and Cargill. William Stewart was in Scone in in 1841 census with his daughter Margaret. Elizabeth in Cargill and Jean in Kinclaven and John in Perth or Glasgow. It seems that William’s sister, Isobell or Bell remained at Clochfoldich and possibly William’s daughters Mary Stewart was a servant at Killichassie house or Logierait as she would be 28 at this time and ages were rounded down to 25. I know nothing about Mary Stewart b. 1813 but it is possible that if she did not marry. Killychasie estate is connected with Clochfoldich. The fact that Isobel has an independent income may indicate that the family was quite well off at one point. Another possibility is that John Stewart of Cloch Cottage or Donald Livingstone of Clochfoldich may have apprenticed our Australian John Stewart as he is a Wright and there are two possibilities for our John Stewart, the first is a Wright living in Perth and the second is a Joiner living in Glasgow. The other name for this cottage is Red Gate cottage and John Stewart’s daughter named her property Red Gate. The Robertson family are obviously the new owners of the estate. The other interesting entry is for Donald Livingston who could be the brother of Margaret Livingstone (the second wife of William Stewart). Probably the more likely scenario with our ancestor John Stewart is that he was the journeyman Wright in Perth which is not far from Scone There was no definite census entry for Janet or Jessie Stewart. Also John Conolly, Margaret’s husband was not found nearby or in the whole of Scotland. He may not have been in the country at that point in time. The other entries are for daughters Elizabeth Stewart in Burnside, Cargill and Jean Crichton in Kinclaven. Margaret Stewart was living with her father William Stewart, shoemaker in Scone. His grand-daughter Elisabeth (Elizabeth’s daughter) was also with them at the time. These family members of William Stewart were not from the same marriage so his two marriages are now researched. Matching with ship records in 1841, Janet Stewart, a nurse maid and John Stewart, a carpenter, arrived as singles and both stated they could read and write. The middle sister, Margaret Stewart, a seamstress, was already married to John Connolly, a wheelwright. Occupations listed may not be accurate because the new colony required certain skills and census records in 1841 and ship record occupations often do not match. William’s Marriages in Logierait His first marriage on 28 February 1808 at Logierait to Elizabeth Erskine of Derculich in the Dull Parish (just slightly to the south of Clochfoldich) . Elizabeth was the mother of his three daughters: Elizabeth b. 1808, Jean b. 1809 and Mary b. 1813, the same year Elizabeth Erskine died. William is listed as a shoemaker of Little Clochfoldich on the marriage record. Verification of Elizabeth Erskine’s possible birth in Bailntium to Alexander Eskine and Ispol McGregor was found. This would make her 16 at her marriage if the baptism was a couple of days after the birth but her birth date is not given. This is possible and she was the only Elizabeth Erskine found in the Perthshire area. The birth area was not at Derculich though but at Bailtuim or it could be Bailnduin (Balendune) of Clochfoldich. It looks more like the Bailtuin which is downstream of the Tay. This would make William about 31 at the marriage. Unfortunately, even though there was an extensive search done, none of the daughters were found in the Parish records. I know they exist from ancestral records on ancestry.com ancestory records and this has now been verified since contact with the GatheringGardiners blogspot compiled by Kent Gardiner. William’s grand-daughter Margaret Stewart married Robert Gardiner in Liverpool harbour on the emigration path to Salt Lake City, Utah. Margaret is Elizabeth and Robert Stewart’s daughter. There is an extended history on this site relating to Margaret Gardiner’s family and the other daughters of Elizabeth Erskine marriage. The only parish record regarding this first family is the marriage of Jean Stewart b. 1809 and James Crighton or Crichton. Certainly there was family history mentioning a sister left behind in Scotland named Jean who married James Crichton. At John Stewart’s funeral in 1905 there was a Mr Crichton Stewart in attendance which verifies the connection with Jean Stewart. The marriage of Elizabeth and Robert Stewart could not be found in Perth parish records, Catholic records, or Blair Atholl records. It is unknown if Mary Stewart b. 1813 married or not. Elizabeth Erskine Stewart died sometime in 1813 or 1814. William’s second marriage was December 29, 1814 to Margaret Livingstone at Redgorton, near Scone. He obviously did not live at Scone then as the family of Margaret and William were born at Little Clochfoldich. It is possible that Margaret Livingstone is the daughter of John Livingstone and Margaret McDonald born at the Brea of Tullipourie on 8th August, 1779. This would make her two years younger than William at this second marriage. If this is the case her grandmother may be Margaret McDonald who was found in 1751 to parents Alexander McDonald and Janet McNaughten of Logierait. The only John Livingstone of Logierait marriage I could find in the area was to Margaret McDougall of Fortingall parish in 1768. This could have been a first marriage for John as well as many childbirth related deaths occurred. Margarate Stewart’s birth was recorded in two parish churches: The Scottish Episcopal, Kilmavaenaeg, Strathtay and Strathtummel and Logierait. Possibly Margaret Livingstone was a member of this church or was baptised there herself. Note the different spelling of Margaret. It is probably that Margaret Livingstone was baptised Margarate Livingstone. I have noticed before in records that a child named after the mother or father is baptised in the ancestral church of the parent. Margaret may be a continuous family name over the generations. I did not at this stage pursue the possible 1751 baptism of Margaret McDonald in this church because it is only speculation. I guess if she was found there it may prove she is mother of Margaret Livingstone. Also Episcopal church was associated with Prince Charlie followers. The Stewart Family’s Arrival in Australia Probably the very best account that could be given of the conditions in a penal colony at the time they arrived is that written by Charles Duncan, the brother of John Stewart’s wife – Jane Duncan. This article is pasted at the end of the document. Charles Duncan on the description of arriving at Sydney Cove on 17 January 1842 made no mention of the fact that two of his siblings youngest sister Ann 2, and eldest brother James 14, died on the voyage. The Duncan family headed to the Morpeth property in the lower Hunter Valley soon after arriving in Sydney. When James Duncan had served his time as a convict overseer he settled at Wallalong in the Hunter Valley and took up tenant farming. John Stewart joined them later after earning some money working for 2 years as a carpenter at Gammon Plains. On 4 October, 1846 John Stewart married Jane daughter of James Duncan of Brechin. Six children were born to John and Jane in the eleven years that they spent together farming at Wallalong one son William, born in 1851 died in 1852 as mentioned in the obituary of Jane Stewart. In 1857, after severe and successive flooding of their farms, the Stewart and Duncan families were forced to look for higher ground. David Duncan and his new wife Jane Isabella Stewart, Charles and Georgina Duncan and recently widowed Agnes Duncan (James Duncan died May 1855) in Hinton caught a steamer and landed in a wharf in Brisbane on 29 September 1857. The settlers’ draught horses, drays and farm implements were offloaded to begin their journey overland to their new land at Bald Hills on the outskirts of Brisbane. The pull factor was brother in law Thomas Gray who was settled in the town with Janet Stewart (John’s sister). Charles Duncan did not stay long farming at Bald Hills and moved on to other ventures but David and Jane remained nearby at Caboolture and John and Jane stayed on at Bald Hills. The area they settled was pin-marked for a settlement to support a proposed large port at the nearby coastal area of Bramble Bay where Sandgate now is located. Eventually Margaret Connolly moved to Sandgate. John Stewart and Jane Duncan Stewart – first settlers at Bald Hills, Brisbane After their experiences on the Hunter River, the settlers selected the higher ground for their farms, erecting their first houses [apparently slab and bark] on the low ridge above the South Pine River where St Peter's Anglican School is now situated. Fearing attack from Aborigines, their houses were loop-holed for rifles and located within sight of each other. These precautions proved unnecessary, for at the request of Thomas Gray and other settlers in the area between Cabbage Tree Creek and Caboolture, a detachment of Native Police was stationed at Sandgate from 1858 to 1862. Under the command of Lieutenant Frederick Wheeler, the Native Police eliminated Aboriginal resistance to white settlement in the Pine Rivers, Cabbage Tree Creek and Caboolture districts by the early 1860s. The Stewart and Duncan families cleared the gentle slopes along the South Pine River for their crops. By the end of the 1860s most of the valuable stands of red cedar and hoop pine in the Bald Hills district had been removed, although much scrub remained. Through the 1860s, 1870s and 1880s maize, potatoes and some oaten and wheaten hay were the principal cash crops, and John Stewart had early experimented with arrowroot and cotton, for which he won bronze and silver medals at the London International Exhibition of 1862. Following the opening of a railway to Bald Hills in 1888, dairying became the principal economic activity in the district. By 1929, dairy farmers at Bald Hills were supplying up to 1000 gallons of milk daily to Brisbane and Sandgate. John Stewart and his family were well respected in the Bald Hills community and active members of the local Presbyterian church, John serving as an Elder for nearly 40 years. The earliest Presbyterian services in the Bald Hills district were conducted at the Stewart home until a small slab and shingled church was erected in 1863 at the corner of the Strathpine and Bald Hills roads. In 1889 the slab church was replaced by a milled-timber building erected on land donated by John Stewart in 1887, further west along Strathpine Road. [This building was destroyed by fire in 1909, and replaced with the present building in 1911.] Two of Stewart's sons, James and Charles, became Presbyterian ministers. Rev. James Stewart was the founder of the Brisbane City Mission. Many local events also were celebrated at the Stewart home, including the opening of the bridge over the South Pine River in May 1865, when a ball was held in the Stewart barn. Eventually part of the farm was sold and this eventually became the St Pauls Anglican College. The Stewart house, one of the school houses, is a reminder of our pioneering family. The remaining Stewart property was developed as the Woodlawn dairy farm, managed by Alexander Caldwell Stewart until his accidental death in 1900. The Woodlawn farmhouse survives at 15 Listowel Street, Bald Hills. Jane Stewart died in 1898, and her husband John in 1905, but at least one son, John Stewart Jnr continued to dairy farm at Bald Hills for many years. It was then known as Glen Stewart farm. Bald Hills remained predominantly a farming community until the second half of the 20th century, when many of the early farms were subdivided for residential settlement. Few 19th century farmhouses have survived, and of those which remain most have been substantially altered. The former farmhouse which is now used as the Administration Building of St Paul's Anglican School, is a rare surviving late 19th/early 20th century farmhouse in the Bald Hills district, and its site is associated with the earliest phase of non-indigenous settlement in the district. A tangible link with the early farm remains in the unsubdivided school grounds and its two early hoop pines. Fortunately for the Stewarts much of their history remained intact as the farm house was incorporated into the St Pauls Anglican school many years later. The house is now a museum which house the history of the district. They eventually carved off this area and built another home named Woodlawn on Glen Stewart farm which was farmed for many years by John Stewart Jnr and his wife Elizabeth. John Stewart (b.1/2/1822 -1905) Little Clochfoldich, Perth and Jean Duncan (l/1828 -1899) Little Brechin, Angus married in the Hunter Valley and had five children: 1. Rev. James (11/5/1847-1907) Wallalong m. Margaret McNevin (1847-1919) Caboolture 2. Agnes (16/4/1849-1933) Wallalong unm. Dressmaker Brisbane 3. William (1851-1852) Wallalong 4. John (23/12/1852-1921) Wallalong m. Elizabeth Brown (1869-1952) Bald Hills 5. Margaret (3/1/1855-1924) Wallalong m. Edmond Foran Mellor (1855-1897) Brisbane 6. William (25/3/1857-1932) Wallalong m. Mary Cooper (1869- ) 7. Ann (27/12/1860-1942) Bald Hills unm. Nurse Brisbane 8. Rev. Charles Alexander(6/2/1862-1950) Bald Hills m. Fanny Hickson (1865-1936) NZ and South Africa 9. Jane (Jessie) (8/2/1864-1921) Bald Hills m. Samuel Latham (1859-1943) Murgon, Queensland 11 children 10. Elizabeth (16/4/1866-1949) Bald Hills m. William Bell (1866-1949) Brisbane 11. Alexander Caldwell (16/5/1868-1900) Bald Hills d. age 32 farm accident eng. to Ethel Tucker Bald Hills 12. Mary Louise (26/5/1870-1952) Bald Hills unmarried d. Murgon 13. Alfred David ( 26/10/1872-1952) Bald Hills m. Rosamond Tucker (1865-1963) Brisbane Description: cloichfoldich sign Rev. James Stewart – eldest son of John Stewart James Stewart was born in Wallalong, New South Wales, on 11 March 1847, the first child of John and Jane Stewart. He relocated to Brisbane when he was 10 years old to Bald Hills near the South Pine River. He had attended school before in the Hunter Valley. He recalls how we enjoyed the training of our beloved and revered teacher, Mr George Sanders between January 1853 and September 1857, when I played and learnt some of the principles of useful citizenship. James probably did his share of the work on the farm at Bald Hills as there was no school to continue his education. In 1863 a temporary school was set up in a church building until the Bald Hills School opened in 1866. James first paid employment was at CaptainWhish’s sugar plantation, Oakland, at Caboolture where he learnt the trade of sugar boiling. On 26 Jane 1872, aged 25, he married Margaret McNevin, the daughter of Archibald McNevin, a farmer, of Bald Hills. He took his bride to Ingham where he worked at the Macnade sugar plantation on the Herbert River. After a few years he returned to Brisbane to commence divinity studies at the Divinity Hall, Brisbane, and on 15 October 1876, while still a student he conducted his first service in the Presbyterian Church in Fortitude Valley. He remained at this church until 1 December 1881. On 5 February 1882, he accepted the position of City Missionary, and together with a large band of willing helpers became the founding member of the Brisbane City Mission, ministering to the poor, the sick and needy of the city. He held this position for 11 years. During his time spent as City Missionary he conducted meetings in halls and theatres and preached on street corners. He was often to be seen on a Sunday night on the corner of Queen and Edward Streets, Brisbane, lantern in one hand, bible in the other, sharing with an assembled crowd his love of God, lecturing on the virtue of temperance and warning of the consequences of the desecration of the Lords Day. In 1883, Rev James Stewart gave considerable assistance to John Tighe, a blind teacher from New South Wales, who was passionate about improving the lives of blind, deaf and dumb people in the Colony of Queensland. The following year a committee was formed which was the beginning to the Queensland Blind, Deaf and Dumb Institute, a body set up to accommodate the needs of children and improve the skills and employment of afflicted adults. In the 1890s he was posted to Murphy’s Creek and surrounding areas. But sadly, Rev James Stewart’s health was b now deteriorating and he was no longer able to carry out active work, and eventually returned to his home in Arthur Street, New Farm, where he passed away quietly, aged 60 year on 16 May 1907. James and Margaret Stewart had a family of five children: Archibald 1873, Ethel Jane 1875, Grace Lillian 1877, Jeanette Isabell 1880, and James Crichton born 1882. Janet Stewart and Thomas Gray Janet Stewart Gray lived in George Street, Brisbane near the shoe emporium commenced by Thomas Gray. He was also involved in the bid for this new port at Sandgate and thought that the move would be a good one in view of later development. The port never did eventuate and it remains a sleepy seaside area. . Thomas Gray and Jessie Stewart Their story told by Jessie Walker Bray, granddaughter to Jessie Stewart who lived 1894-1987. In 1841 many migrant vessels were coming to NSW and Queensland and on 16 September 1841 was under Captain Thorn and the ‘Anne Milne’ with 300 migrants aboard from Dundee, Scotland, sailed through Sydney heads on 17 January 1842. On this happy voyage of four months many friendships were made and history records that cupid had not been idle on the journey. The Stewarts, John and his two sisters Jessie (Janet) and Margaret left their father’s farm at Cloughfoldich, Strathtay on the upper reaches of the River Tay. Our great grandfather had a shoe maker’s business at a small town called Logierait. One daughter Jean stayed in Scotland and another daughter married Mr Carmichael. [Note: Jean’s daughter married Carmichael but it may be worth checking if Mary Stewart also married a Carmichael as her marriage was not found. They did not mention Elizabeth. The only Carmichael to marry a Mary Stewart was in Renfrewshire in 1859 so this is a generation out.] The Duncans were very good friends of the Stewarts, Angus Ross [James Duncan – he was fromAngus] and Jean [Jane Ross] and family Charles, David and Jean. Jean had her 14th birthday when the ‘Anne Milne’ sailed through Sydney Heads. John Stewart married Jean Duncan in 1846. [Not mentioned here is the utter anguish that must have been felt by the Duncan parents as they lost their eldest son James Duncan early on the voyage and Ann Duncan their youngest daughter not far from Australian shores]. On landing at Sydney from the ‘Anne Milne’ Thomas Gray of Rosshire, Scotland and nine other single men were selected to do station work on the Lower Burnett in Queensland. [All on board were only given one week to find work or leave to be homeless]. He served on Sir Ewan McKenzie’s station outside Maryborough for two years. He returned to Brisbane and bought property near the corner of George and Queen Street in 1844 and established a boot manufacturing business. In 1844 he returned to Sydney to marry Jessie and returned with machinery, lasts and stock on a bullock wagon. All the gear had to come from England. He returned with Jessie Stewart; they were married in Sydney by Dr. John Dunmore Lang in1845. They had their honeymoon on a bullock wagon trip from Sydney which took 18 months? He made boots and made to measure lines and slippers in the factory and workshop. They had seven children, the youngest son Alec was drowned in the Brisbane River. The following entry was published in the ‘Moreton Bay Courier’ on 29 August 1857: “GRAY, Alexander Stewart By drowning at South Brisbane on 24th instant, Alexander Stewart, youngest son of Mr. T. Gray of George Street, North Brisbane. Age 2 yrs. 7 mths.” Thomas Gray’s Bootshop was burnt in 1884 and ‘Grays Warehouse’ erected in its place consisting of a brick building, containing basement, ground floor and two upper floors 60 x 25 ft with a laneway to Queen Street (the main Brisbane Street) at the back. Before his death in 1877 Thomas Gray took William into partnership, T and W Gray. Thomas Gray’s sons Thomas and John went farming at Bald Hills. The three girls were Margaret (Mrs Walker); Ann and Jane called Jannie (Mrs Prentice). On Grandpa’s death Thomas, John and Ann were employed in the business. On grandma’s death the three became partners with Uncle Bill. He worked the machinery in the basement. The others served in the shop. The machinist and men worked in the fourth storey and the stock was kept in the third storey. The manufacturing and made-to-measure lines were continued until it was found more economical to have them made by factories. Grandma insisted on her ‘boys’ having midday dinner inher home which was next door. Latterly she did not come downstairs. Jessie Walker was her companion until she married Thomas Bray, then Ella Walker took over the housekeeping and the maids saw to meals. Friday night was late shopping till 10.00 pm. The grandchildren always had to go upstairs to see grandma and recite or play the piano, even if it was a five finger exercise. A cake or chocolate followed these visits. In the shop we were spoiled. Sam Pope would give us a ride in the lift to all floors. Of course we knew all the employees, we always called downstairs to Uncle Bill. This meant a box of chocolates. He kept a stock of them. He was a bachelor and looked after Aunty Connoley at Sandgate. They had scores of white leghorns and always plenty of eggs and a lovely garden. [Well, I did not know that, I always wondered who looked after Margaret Stewart Conolly when John Conolly died]. In 1912 Grandma’s home was demolished and rebuilt to correspond with the shop. On 17 October 1950 Gray’s building was sold. Those were happy days and lovely memories. Thomas Gray’s daughter Ann, has an association the cookbook called ‘WMU Cooker Book’. A foreward in the book says ‘About 1894 Miss A.Y. Gray suggested a Cookery Book. Tried receipes should be compiled by the Prebyterian Women’s Missionary Union, the proceeds from the sales of such book to be used for the benefit of the Presyterian Mission to Aboriginals in Cape York Peninsula. A book was printed and circulated and became so popular that edition after edition has been printed ….@ In 1849, three ships arrived with 600 souls, and the Presbyterian, Baptist and Congregationalist grew together and held public worship in the United Evangelical Church William Street on the site of the Executive Building. [It is not mentioned here but I have heard that Thomas Gray was a ‘bear of a man’ with a huge height – his son Thomas was also a very big man. Thomas is in the Stewart family photo at Bald Hills in the back row.] The family of Thomas Gray (1816-1877) and Janet Gray (23/12/1814-1900) married 30/6/1845 are: 1. Margaret (1846-1932) married Aeneas Walker (1835-1906); 2. Thomas Roderick (1847-1911) married Helen Smith (1941); (farmed at Bald Hills) 3. William James Stewart (1850-1926) not married; (lived at Sandgate with Margaret Conolly) 4. Ann Young 1852 - ) not married; 5. John Stewart Connoly (1854 - ) married Agnes McKinnon in 1886 (farmed at Bald Hills) 6. Alexander Stewart (1855-1857) drowned in Brisbane River; 7. Jane Elizabeth (1858 - ) married George Prentice. Margaret Connolly Stewart and John Connolly Like most from the Ann Milne, Margaret and John Connolly became farmers at Paterson in Hunter Valley for a few years. The Hunter Valley River District was the food bowl for Sydney. He was at Hinton area in 1846 as his name appears as a witness to the marriage of his brother-in-law John Stewart on 4th October 1846. Margaret was recorded as a ‘seamstress’ on the ship records but it is unknown if she worked in that capacity. She may have worked with her niece doing larger weddings as Agnes Stewart was a dressmaker and often did family weddings. They were both 22 years old when they came to Australia, John was from County Ofally in Ireland and his father Terence Connolly was alive at the time of departure from Scotland. His mother Rose was dead. They were a childless couple so very hard to trace through the records. Even in Scotland there was no trace of their marriage. Rev. James Stewart in the Brisbane Courier article in 1905 believes John Connolly came to Brisbane in 1854 as there were horse adjustment ads from 1 May 1854. In a newspaper article by Rev James Stewart he recollected that his uncle was ‘a strong, laughter-loving boy from the south of Ireland’, had drowned in mysterious circumstances in the Brisbane River in 1858. In the article in 1858 it appears that John Connolly was a mail contractor, who carried the mails by horseback from Brisbane to Ipswich. On 28 July 1858, he had left the Commercial Hotel in Brisbane about 1.00 pm telling everyone that he was going to pick up the mails for Ipswich. The following day his horse, with saddle and bridle still in place, was found grazing near his paddock at South Brisbane and his hat was found on the ground about a quarter of a mile from his house. An extensive search by police and a party of townspeople failed to find him. Several days later a body, identified as that of John Connolly, was found floating in the river. The Coroners’s inquest into his death, publish in the Moreton Bay Courier , 4 August 1858, reached the verdict – found drowned. He was aged 38. Margaret seemed to lease out the paddocks for a few years . In her later years Margaret lived with her nephew William Gray, a bachelor, at Sandgate. She enjoyed regular visits by her brother John Stewart and members of his large family. She died in her 87th year, at George Street, Brisbane, on 25 September 1905. Her grave is in the Bald Hills Cemetry, the headstone records her name as Margaret Stewart Connolly. Text Box: Description: Bald Hills Farmhouse Description: John Stewart John Stewart, b. 1822 Clochfoldich, Perthshire, Scotland (my gg grandfather). Jane Duncan Stewart. Description: stewart mellor duncan working Alexander Caldwell Stewart d. age 32. Description: stewart mellor duncan working Agnes Stewart, eldest, dressmaker Margaret Jane Stewart Mellor wife of Edmund Foran Mellor Description: stewart mellor duncan working Ann Stewart, nurse, unmarried. Mary Louise or Maud, Manager of Woodlawn – later lived with Jessie and Sam at Murgon. Description: stewart mellor duncan working Description: stewart mellor duncan working John Stewart Jnr and Elizabeth Brown Description: john%20stewart%20on%20anne%20milne Description: anne%20milne%20notes Description: conolly%20on%20anne%20milne Description: janet%20stewart%20on%20anne%20milne Description: thomas gray of anne milne Description: stewart mellor duncan working Samuel Latham from Shrewsbury and Jessie Stewart Yonngest son, Alfred David and Rosamund Tucker. Rev. James Stewart - . Medals won by John Stewart at an International Exhibition for Produce in London in 1862. I bet he treasured them. . Description: stewart mellor duncan working From left to right: Some of John Stewart’s family circa 1920. Insert: Alexander Caldwell Stewart died at age 30 on farm, John Stewart Jnr, wife Elizabeth; Alfred Stewart with Rosamond in front of him resting against Margaret Stewart Mellor; Evaline Mellor (tall lady at rear); Agnes Stewart unm. (front), Mary Louise or Maud Stewart (back); Samuel Latham (back); Ann Stewart unm (front); Jane Stewart Latham (back); Louisa Duncan Mellor (front). Jean Duncan Stewart (insert). It was Rosamund’s fathers funeral. Description: Stewart gathering with Jack Latham on grass Very grainy but may be woman to right of John Stewart (central) is Margaret Stewart Connoly as she lived nearby at Sandgate and died some years after John Stewart died in 1905. His wife Jane Duncan Stewart had died in 1898 by the time this photo was taken. John Stewart Jnr is standing behind his father with wife Elizabeth to his right. The couple at the end of the top row are Alfred Stewart and his wife. My grandfather John Stewart Latham is sitting on the grass in the front with children sitting beside him. Thomas Gray Jnr is tall man at the rear. My grandfather Samuel Latham is standing to the left of Thomas Gray. Rev. James Stewart is standing to the right of Thomas Gray. My grandmother Jessie Stewart Latham is at the end of middle row with baby on her knee The transcribed text of this article follows: Charles Duncan: Published in the Courier Mail 13 October, 1923. "Born on December 8, 1833, near Brechin, in Forfarshire, Scotland, I am in the shadows of eventide, and ere the break of the new and perfect day" I venture to put down some of the recollections of the past, that those who live in these times of ease and plenty may know something of what the pioneers endured in opening up this country. My father and mother, with three sons and two daughters, left Dundee during September, 1811, in the sailing ship, Ann Milne, and landed at Sydney in January, 1842. Our skipper was Captain Thom, and there were about 300 immigrants aboard. We took no cargo, the vessel being fitted up simply as an emigrant ship. It was a regulation in those days that every immigrant vessel must carry six months supply of provisions and water. This, for the needs of so great a company, took up all available cargo space for the water was carried in casks between decks. In order to ensure ballast, as the water was used from the casks, sea water was pumped back, thus preventing, our load becoming too light as the journey proceeded. We were only a few days in Sydney. The place had in those days no signs of its coming greatness. George-street was only a track that led down to what was afterwards Circular Quay. The only deep water was on the west side of Darling Point. There was no landing place for goods east of Millers Point but there was a wharf in Darling Harbour. Immigrants were taken off the ships in small boats, and the ship lay a little off the land . There was no immigration depot, but persons were allowed to stay on board for a period of one week. If they had not got employment by then, they had to get away and fend for themselves. Nearly every one went about on foot . Horses were very expensive, and all goods traffic was by bullock team. Ten single men from our ship were engaged for station work at the head of the Burnett River, and one of these was Mr Tom Gray after, of George street Brisbane. They were taken off to a small sailing vessel and brought direct to Moreton Bay. Thence they went overland, humping their 'blueys" guided by a man with a pack horse carrying provisions. My father was engaged to go to Mr John Eales's farm on the Lower Hunter River, near Morpeth, as an overseer of convicts. At this time nearly all the labour in the country was provided by the convicts. Owners of land, and some leasees of Crown land, could obtain this labour by applying to the nearest police magistrate and paying the cost of their escort from Sydney. They could get men of almost any trade, including carpenters, blacksmiths, farm hands and shepherds. These men were paid no wages, nor did the Governor receive any consideration for supplying them. Each man received from his employer 10lb. of flour and 10lb of meat per week, and two suits of clothes (not 10 guinea suits, you may be sure) a year. Although not bound to do so by regulation, nearly all these man received, in addition, tea, sugar and tobacco. They were given plenty of work and a bare existence. They were not supposed to go away from the holding of their masters but many were treated leniently, and allowed to go where they would, so long as they turned up for work when wanted. In this manner was Australia's primary industry originally carried on. One of the early Governors advised the authorities at home to send out female convicts, believing that when the male prisoners had served their time they would marry them, but the plan would not work. Women convicts were not wanted either by their confreres in crime or by anyone else and I have heard my father remark that he had never met anyone who had a good word to say for them. "IRON" GANGS AND TREADMILLS. The male convicts were worked often in "iron ' gangs and in treadmills. Men were condemned to the iron gang for from one to twelve months. To each leg was rivetted a band of iron about 1 in. by one eighth of an inch, and to this was attached by a chain about 3ft long a solid block of iron weighing 5lb to 6lb. The men were not allowed to lift the iron unless it got entangled in some thing, they had to drag it with them night and day. No protection from the galling iron was given by the authorities but the men were allowed to tear up an old shirt or garment, and stuff that between the flesh and the iron band and thus protect themselves from its chafing. These men were generally engaged in stone breaking. This condemnation followed on very slight offences, such as the striking of an official, for which the punishment might be twelve months in the gang. The treadmill was a device for milling grain, and was like the paddlewheel of a steamer. The wheel was controlled by a brake, and the speed regulated by letting in more or less grain. There was accommodation for ten or twelve men, who had to keep time or fall down-walking, as it were always uphill but never getting any higher. The punishment was from one to three hours, according to the gravity of the offence .It was thus, the prison grain was ground THE OFFICIAL FLOGGER. Wherever there was a police magistrate there also was an official flogger. No freeman would take this job it; it was always a convict who filled this office, and some of these men appeared to be so brutalized by the treatment they had received that they appeared to be almost past feeling. The instrument of torture had a wooden handle about a foot long, and about three-quarters of an inch thick to which was attached some ten thongs of whipcord, about 12 in. long, knotted every two inches. Tee victim was hung up by the hands to a crossbeam, his shirt stripped off, and the flogger applied the lash from shoulder to waist. If the flogger was a merciful man, he could be light in his strokes, but, frequently he was a callous brute, and when he brought the flail down would give it a sharp pull towards himself and thus break the skin at every stroke. For trivial offences, such as insulting behaviour to those over them, men were condemned to from 25 to 100 lashes. I have heard my father say that he never knew of one sent to a police magistrate who did not receive a flogging. The poor convicts had no one to plead their case, no witnesses were called; it seemed to be taken for granted that they were guilty. Such was 'British justice' in those days and when we compare these things with the modem treatment of criminals-skilled counsel freely given and picture shows in gaol-we may reflect how far we have travelled in the science of penology. EARLY SETTLERS In 1844 the convicts let out for labour were called in, as it was termed. The farmers who had employed them did not fill their places with free labour because the price of produce had fallen so low that they could not afford to pay wages. Thus their cleared land was allowed to grow weeds . By degrees, however, it was taken up by men with families in blocks of from 20 to 30 acres, under a grain rent of from three to five bushels of wheat per acre. Wheat was then usually 2/6 a bushel. As the land owners had lots of working bullocks and implements they sold them to their tenants on time pay ment. Although these early settlers did not get rich, they made comfortable homes, and keeping one or two cows, fowls, etc, they generally managed to rub along all right. Stock owners had to employ free labour, because all sheep had to be looked after during the day and put in hurdles at night. By 1843 stock were so plentiful that there was no demand for one half of them as meat. To relieve this situation boiling down works, were started on the Lower Hunter River, but this failed to cope with the surplus. I have seen thousands of tons of the finest meat that could be produced in any part of the world carted out to rot. The fat and hides only were exported, and any one going to the boiling down works could got a hindquarter of beef or mutton at a penny a pound. This was continued for quite a number of years in fact, prices remained much the same until after gold was discovered in New South Wales, and, later in Victoria when people from all parts of the world came here in thousands. THE ABORIGINALS Aboriginals were very numerous when we came to the Hunter River in 1842. I have seen as many as 500 in one camp at a corroboree, with more than a score of half castes. In less than 40 years nearly all had disappeared-half castes and I have asked several old colonists if they could account for their disappearance, but I have never had a satisfactory answer. The blacks were very useful to the early settlers. They were often employed in husking corn (maize). Husking and threshing machines were not known in those days. The first sheller I saw was brought by the master of a timber-laden vessel from America in 1852. There was no saw milling machinery. Up to that time all timber was sawn by hand over a pit. One man stood on the log and directed the saw and the other in the pit below. All nails were made by hand. Common sayings were: "As busy as a nailer," and "He has too many irons in the fire ." Each man would have from three to five rods in the fire at the same time, and he took them out by turns About two or three years before we came to Australia a company had been formed in Sydney, known as the Hunter River Steam Navigation Co, for the purpose of running steamers between Sydney and Morpeth, the head of the navigable waters of the Hunter River. This company had two steamers built in Scotland and, after their trial trip, their paddles were taken off and stowed on board, and the vessels came out under sail, because they could not carry sufficient coal to bring them even half way. There was no light- house at Newcastle, so the steamers left Sydney in time to reach there by daylight. There they took in coal. It was brought in drays and tipped on to the wharf, and then taken on board in wheelbarrows. GOLD SEEKING AND FARMING. In 1852 I went to the gold diggings about 20 or 30 miles south of Mudgee. I spent about a year there, but as I found that I was not getting any richer I returned. I then started farming on my own and married. In 1854 I went for a trip to Sydney. As we were nearing Sydney Heads we saw what none on board had ever seen before-a steamer without paddle wheels. Our captain signalled her, and got the reply: "Cleopatra, from San Francisco." A few days later I went to Parramatta by rail-the first railway in Australia-and whilst there I was shown the tree against which Lady Mary Fitzroy was killed by the bolting of her carriage horses. During the early part of 1857 I came to Brisbane with the intention of making a home here . I bought land at Bald Hills, on the South Pine River, adjoining land bought by my brother and brother-in-law (John Stewart), a short time previ ously. Towards the end of that year we all came to Moreton Bay in the steamer Yarra Yarra (Captain Beh). We landed at South Brisbane, where the A.S.N. Co. had a wharf. We each brought with us two draught horses, a dray and some farming implements. On the day of our arrival we went out to Bald Hills, and were the only settlers there for some time. Our nearest neighbours were at German Station (Nundah) . There were no houses at Sandgate at that time and some time later the first house was built by a man named John Louden. As the aboriginies were very numerous, and not to be trusted, the New South Wales Government in 1858 established a black police camp near Sandgate, with six black troopers and a white man, Lou Wheeler, in charge. This camp remained for six or seven years, and it was then removed further north. In those days the Yarra Yarra carried mail from Sydney and made the trip once a fortnight. Mail bags (letters only) were taken by pack horse, direct from the steamer to Ipswich and newspapers and parcels were sent by boat travelling with the tides. All heavy goods were taken in punts, some of which were very large. Edmund Mellor and a mate owned one of these punts, and did very well. Afterwards they bought the Bremer, and later the much talked of Settler was bought by Mr. Mellor. He also had a small steamer built by Smellie and Co., and named it after his wife (my sister). About 1859 the A.S.N. Co., finding that it had not sufficient room at its wharf in South Brisbane, offered to buy the land on each side of its property, but the owners asked such a high price - evidently thinking the company would be compelled to buy-that the ship was not made. Instead the company bought land on the North Side where its present wharves are situated. From that day the North Side progressed faster than the South. In this same year Cobb and Co started to run coaches to Ipswich, and they continued to do so until the railway was completed to Roma-street. A Pioneer's Recollections QUEENSLANDS EARLY DAYS, BY C. DUNCAN, LAIDLEY I I. No. 2. In this article Mr. Duncan, who is 90 years of age, tells of the Brisbane of 66 years ago, and of his experiences at Bald Hills, Ipswich, Maryborough, Laidley, and other places. When I came to Brisbane in the early part of 1857 there were two grocery shops in Queen-street-one kept by Mr. Richard S. Warry and the other by Mr. Reuben Oliver. I remember that Mr. Oliver sold coffee in tins, labelled in large red letters, "Roasted and Ground by a process only known to the undersigned." There were also two butchers' shops in Queen-street-one kept by Mr. Geo. Ed monstone (who represented East Moreton in the first Parliament of Queensland) and the other by Mr. P. Mayne. The Post Office was kept by the widow of Colonel Barney; in her own house, situated in Queen-street, nearly opposite the pre sent Bank of New South Wales. Her husband had been in charge of the military in Moreton Bay, and had died here. In 1857 one police magistrate and two mounted police, with Chief Constable Samuel Sneyd and two or three ordinary police, constituted the guardians of civil order, and when the new gaol was built on Petrie-Terrace Mr. Sneyd was appointed Governor. There were two doctors-Drs. Hobbs and Bell. Dr. Hobbs's house, in Ann-street, was afterwards rented as a residence for Sir George Bowen, our first Governor. lu 1817 there were two solicitors Robert Little, in George-street; and Daniel Foley Roberts, in Queen-street. Mr. Chas. Lilley was the third solicitor to commence practice in Brisbane. After separation Mr. Roberts and Mr. Lilley contested the Valley-seat, and the vote went to Mr. Lilley. Mr. Roberts was appointed a member of the Legislative Council, and was chosen Chairman of Com- mittees, a position he hold for the rest of his life. After a few years Mr. Little retired, and built a house on the high ground to the east of Albion, and named it "Whytecliff"." The Church was repre- sented in those days by two clergymen- Rev. Father McGinty (Roman Catholic) and Rev. Charles Ogg (Presbyterian). When I arrived in Brisbane there was no bridge over Breakfast Creek; the traffic was handled by a punt capable of carrying a horse and cart and about half a ton of loading. We went by this route to Bald Hills, and then followed the creek to higher ground, to what in later years was called Albion. Then the track turned to the north to German station. My brother and I marked a tree line in a north-westerly direction to a fairly good crossing over Kedron Brook, thence north about five miles, thence north-westerly to Bald Hills. We had no compass, but we had some of the instinct of the carrier pigeon. JAMES DAVIS Thomas Gray bought an allotment in George-street and on it built a cottage. He then went to Sydney and married Mrs. Jessie Stewart, returned to Brisbane and commenced his trade of boot and shoe maker. His nearest neighbour was James Davis who had been for 14 years among the blacks in the Wide Bay district. The blacks gave him the name Dooroomboi. He had at this time a smithy, made mountings for bullock yokes, bows etc. for me. Mr. Gray told me not to mention his connection with the blacks when talking to him. This was not because he did not wish this known but because it recalled his past. He and another man had escaped from the convict settlement, and, crossing the North Pine River, had kept on northward. Here his mate lost his life under peculiar circumstances. They had established friendly relations with the blacks and on one occasion were with them gathering oysters. Looking round for something to carry them in his mate found a dilly bag hanging up under a tree. On taking it down he found it to contain some small bones. Thinking these of no account, he turned them out and filled the bag with oysters. That night the two white men were camped by a fire some distance from the blacks, and from the commotion made Davis could see that something unusual was taking place. They seemed to be having a council of war. There were no gins about and this generally meant trouble The disputation went on far into the night, when apparently with reluctance a decision was arrived at. His mate was sound asleep but Davis was too concerned to sleep. By-and-by he saw three or four natives coming towards their camp and, without more ado these men clubbed his mate in his sleep. He quite expected his turn would come next.But nothing further happened, and he continued on the best of terms with them. Not for many months, when he had learned something of their language, did he understand what had happened. It seems that when his mate turned the bones out of the dilly bag he had turned out the bones of a gin's child, and had committed sacrilege according to their customs. For this death was the penalty. The blacks had a great argument as to whether they should exact the penalty, but they decided at that there was no other way. THE MANY THOMASES While in Brisbane I noticed what a number of local residents were named Thomas. I remember Tom Dowse (journalist) , Tom Gray (boot and shoe maker), Tom Warry (chemist), Tom Hays (dairyman). Tom Fraser (piper – a shipmate), Tom Petrie. &c. Mr. Petrie married the daughter of Mr. James Campbell, and was the first settler on the North Pine. Mrs. Petrie is still living. All the earliest settlers on both the North and South Pine were Scotch. I broke up all my land at Bald Hills with the help of working bullocks, and also did a good deal of timber hauling for Birley and Cox, sawmillers at Kangaroo Point, and for W. Pettigrew, North Bris- bane. I also supplied the timber for the South Pine Bridge at Bald Hills (R. Porter, contractor). After a time timber became so low in price that it did not pay, and there being no demand for it there was no work for bullock teams. I therefore decided to take to carrying until I could get a buyer. I went to Ipswich, and, as I had a letter of introduction from a friend to G. H. Wilson, I got loading at once. My first trip was to Bendemeer station, on the Upper Yeulbah, owned and occupied by Mr. Coxen, locally known .is " Scrammy," a name supposed to be de- scriptive of his hand, which had been shat- tered by the bursting of a gun. My "furthest out'" was to Mitchell Downs station, owned by E. Morey, and situated on the west bank of the Maranoa River. This station consisted of a. few "bark huts" and a woolshed. Mr. Morey had his home in Toowoomba on account of the education of his children. After about two years I met a buyer for my team in Dalby, as I was returning to Ipswich. We agreed as to terms, and I was to give delivery when I returned. I got back loading, and handed the team over lock, stock, and barrel, and I have never owned a working bullock since. That was in 1866. It was during these travels I fell in with the late Mr. Alex. Hunter and his brother-in-law, Mr. Scott. These good pioneers later settled in the Laidley, district, in which place I found my way later. THE LATE SIR JAMES BURNS In 1867, when gold was discovered in Gympie, a number of Brisbane draymen started for that place with loading, travelling by what was known as " Post-man's Track," through Durundur. I thought of doing the same, but while in Brisbane one day I met A. Markwell, whom I knew. He had just returned from Gympie, and strongly advised me not to think of going by land, but to go to Maryborough by steamer. I took his advice, and instead of inquiring for loading I booked my passage, with drays and horses, by the steamer Clarence. On the way down the river I met an acquaintance, James Burns (afterwards Sir James), who had been a storeman in his brother John's warehouse. He told me his brother had supplied him with groceries, so that he could go to Gympie and make a start on his own. As he required a carrier I agreed to take his loading, and we were both suited. The steamer arrived at Maryborough the next day, and we loaded and went out five miles, and camped at a waterhole. On the third day we reached Gympie, and unloaded. James Burns had a tarpaulin, and with this he made a shelter for his goods and camped under the same cover until he could get a rough building put up. I. carried for him for several months, but prices getting low I gave it up and returned to Bald Hills. I came by the " Postman's Track"' through Durundur, and was not surprised that young Markwell had advised me not to go that way. Mr. W. R. Thurlow took my place as carter to John Burns, and later was employed in the store. On the death of Mr Burns, he succeeded to the business. LAIDLEY IN 1884 In 1884 I came to Laidley, and put up the first building on the west side of Patrick street an a general store. At that time Laidley and district were part of the Tarampa division, and about two years afterwards Laidley became a division by itself, the western boundary being the Little Liverpool Range and the northern the railway line. When the board was elected I became one of the members, and continued so until 1897, when I went to Western Australia. I was chairman in 1894. In 1884 the police station was at the Old Township, but soon after this the Government resumed land opposite the railway station, and quarters were built for the police, and a couple of cells to accommodate any one who could not find his way home! Later a court house was built. I was one of the several residents appointed as justices of the peace, and as I was nearest was oftener called upon. There are certain cases which can be dealt with by one justice, and not in- frequently I had to act alone. Drunkeness was the usual charge, and, on, those occasions, if the culprit had money, I inflicted a fine, because at that time all the police court fines went to the nearest, hospital in this ease, Ipswich. If the unfortunate had no money, I usually cautioned him and discharged him. I could not see the reasonableness of keeping a man locked up and kept at the public expense, and, further, I thought, that he was punished sufficiently for having lost his time and money without any chance getting any return. For several years after I came to Laidley there was neither a doctor nor solicitor. Most of the produce of the farms was brought to the railway station in bullock drays; very few of the settlers had even a dray of their own. The only spring cart was that used by the butcher. It is a far cry from that time to the motor cars and motor lorries of today. Yet in those days, if ready money was scarce, there was no starvation. There was plenty of work, and many willing hands. Taken all round, the people were happy, and, I think, more neighbourly than they are to-day. Any straggler was sure of some thing to eat, and, if he chose, could camp for a day or two, and go on again. During this time the Rev. Dr. Nelson, Presbyterian Minister at Toowoomba, caused a slab building to he put up at the Old Township for worship. The money was raised by public subscription, and the building was used by all Protestant ministers. MISSION TO ABORIGINES. In 1884, when I first went to Laidley there were at least 50 or 60 aborigines in the district, but they gradually died out. I remember one in particular one named Dumy, who had three or four children. They were about Laidley for many years. Dummy was not a pure-blooded aboriginal; it was stated that her father was an American negro. She looked like one, being stouter than the ordinary aboriginal, and instead of being a dark brown, her colour was a shiny black. I saw in the "Courier,'' in 1914, that a son of hers had enlisted, and had returned in 1918 to the camp near Ipswich. I have not seen an aborigine, for seven years. The last was a lad employed by a local medico as groom. He and his wife and children, and they camped in a gunya of the old style near the lagoon at the old township. In 1864 or 1865, ten missionaries were sent from Germany to civilise and Christianise the aboriginals of Australia. They were sent by the Government at Sydney to Brisbane, and given grants of land at Kedron Brook. They were supported by their society for three years, and after that were expected to manage for themselves. I have conversed with a number of these missionaries and asked if they believed that they had been of any service to the aboriginies, but their reply was always that their mission had been a failure. None of the sub-families have been covered: Compiled by Sandra Roome (nee Latham) 2015.